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Table 2 Crude death rate ratios of normalized biomarkers estimated with an independent hazard regression model for each biomarker (effect of 1 SD on the death RR)

From: Predicting mortality with biomarkers: a population-based prospective cohort study for elderly Costa Ricans

  Main Square Age 80+ Male
Metabolic hormones     
 Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 1.42** 0.99 0.89 0.86+
 Fasting glucose 1.37** 1.00 0.84+ 0.81*
CV biomarkers     
 Diastolic blood pressure 0.95 1.06** 0.92 1.06
 Systolic blood pressure 0.88+ 1.07** 0.89 1.11+
Metabolic – lipids     
 Triglycerides 0.90 1.05** 0.88 1.04
 Total cholesterol 0.79** 1.07** 1.09 1.02
 HDL cholesterol 0.84* 1.05* 1.15 1.00
 Total/HDL cholesterol ratio 0.99 1.02** 0.89 1.01
 LDL cholesterol 0.80* 1.04+ 1.08 1.02
Stress hormones     
 Urinary cortisol 1.00 0.99 1.15 1.12+
 DHEAS 0.90 1.08** 0.93 0.87
 Epinephrine 1.16 1.00 0.88 0.85
 Norepinephrine 0.98 1.01 1.06 1.09
Inflammation, immune system     
 CRP 1.42** 0.97* 0.93 0.99
Organ-specific functional reserve     
 Creatinine clearance 0.72** 1.10** 1.21+ 0.97
 Handgrip strength 0.41** 0.98 0.98 1.69**
 Distance in 10 seconds 0.56** 1.01 1.16+ 1.08
 Pulmonary peak flow 0.47** 0.97 0.97 1.39*
Nutrition, body size     
 Knee height 0.92 0.97 0.98 1.14
 Waist circumference 1.08 1.06** 0.85+ 1.02
 BMI 1.04 1.02** 0.77** 0.98
 Waist/hip ratio 1.16+ 0.99 0.85+ 0.99
  1. Significance assessed with robust estimates of standard errors: + means significant at *p < 0.10; at **p < 0.05; and at p < 0.01.
  2. All regression models also include control variables for sex, age (continuous), and Nicoya.