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Table 3 Death rate ratios of normalized biomarkers estimated with several specifications of hazard regression models (effect of 1 SD on the death rate)

From: Predicting mortality with biomarkers: a population-based prospective cohort study for elderly Costa Ricans

Biomarkers and control variables Demo-graphic model Partial models Full model 1 Full model 2
Metabolic hormones     
 Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)   1.23** 1.23** 1.24**
Cardiovascular biomarkers     
 Systolic blood pressure (SBP)   0.85** 0.89* 0.90+
 quared SBP   1.05* 1.03 1.03
 SBP * Male   1.15+ 1.13 1.15+
Metabolic – lipids     
 Total cholesterol   0.73** 0.83** 0.85*
 Squared total chol.   1.08** 1.04+ 1.03
 HDL cholesterol   1.26** 1.19* 1.16*
 Total/HDL cholesterol ratio   1.24** 1.19** 1.16*
Stress hormones     
 DHEAS   0.79** 0.83** 0.84*
 Squared DHEAS   1.08** 1.05* 1.04
Inflammation, immune system     
 CRP   1.43** 1.27** 1.24**
 Squared CRP   0.96** 0.97* 0.97+
Organ-specific functional reserve     
 Handgrip strength   0.55** 0.59** 0.65**
 Handgrip * Male   1.62** 1.60** 1.53**
 Distance in 10 seconds   0.75** 0.79** 0.90+
 Pulmonary peak flow   0.71** 0.72** 0.73**
Nutrition, body size     
 Waist circumference   1.04 0.99 1.00
 Squared waist circumference   1.06** 1.06* 1.06*
 BMI * age 80+   0.84* 0.94 0.92
Baseline health controls     
 Normalized disability scale   1.59**   1.27**
 Cancer diagnosis   1.46**   1.51**
 Involuntary weight loss   1.24*   1.17
 Current smoker   1.43+   1.50*
 Bad self-reported health   1.22   1.12
Demographic controls     
 Male 1.65*   4.31** 3.76**
 Male * Age 0.99   0.99 0.99
 Nicoya 0.71*   0.66** 0.73*
 Age (1 extra year) 1.09**   1.05** 1.05**
  1. Significance assessed with robust estimates of standard errors: + means significant at *p < 0.10; at **p < 0.05; and at p < 0.01.
  2. Partial models include the biomarkers of the respective group AND demographic controls. N = 2,313 individuals, 11,433 observed age segments, and 564 deaths.