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Table 3 Hazard ratios predicting mortality from all causes

From: Mortality and excess risk in US adults with pre-diabetes and diabetes: a comparison of two nationally representative cohorts, 1988–2006

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Hazard Ratio 95% CI Hazard Ratio 95% CI Hazard Ratio 95% CI
Sex       
 Women 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Men 1.54 *** (1.34-1.76) 1.30 *** (1.13-1.50) 1.33 *** (1.16-1.53)
Race/ethnicity       
 Other 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Hispanic 0.76 (0.57-1.02) 0.83 (0.62-1.12) 0.84 (0.63-1.13)
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.48 *** (1.21-1.82) 1.51 *** (1.23-1.84) 1.49 *** (1.22-1.81)
Education Level       
 Less than High School 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 High School 0.78 ** (0.65-0.93) 0.79 ** (0.66-0.94) 0.79 ** (0.67-0.94)
 More than High School 0.61 *** (0.50-0.74) 0.68 *** (0.56-0.83) 0.67 *** (0.55-0.82)
Smoking       
 Never Smoker    1.00   1.00  
 Former Smoker    1.83 *** (1.46-2.29) 1.83 *** (1.46-2.39)
 Current Smoker    2.90 *** (2.24-3.75) 2.73 *** (2.11-3.52)
BMI      0.87 *** (0.82-0.93)
BMI Squared      1.00 *** (1.00-1.00)
Perioda 0.86 (0.65-1.13) 0.86 (0.66-1.13) 0.88 (0.67-1.15)
Dysglycemiab 1.63 *** (1.38-1.92) 1.55 *** (1.31-1.83) 1.62 *** (1.36-1.93)
Dysglycemia X Period 1.34 (0.94-1.92) 1.45* (1.02-2.07) 1.46 * (1.03-2.08)
  1. a. Period is an indicator variable which takes a value of 1 in the later of the two periods in the analysis. Entry years are 1988-1994 with follow-up through 2001 for the earlier period and 1999-2002 with follow-up through 2006 for the later period; b. Dysglycemia sample includes persons with HbA1c ≥ 5.7% or on treatment for diabetes. References categories for categorical variables indicated by HR = 1.00; Sample includes persons ages 35-74 at baseline. All estimates are weighted and account for complex survey design.
  2. Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and continuous.
  3. ***p < 0.001; ** < 0.01; *p < 0.05