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Table 3 Odds ratios for the probability of being in the highest risk quartiles of the biomarker distributions: BMI, subjective health and other self-reported health measures (logistic regression models, both sexes combined)

From: Association of blood lipids, creatinine, albumin, and CRP with socioeconomic status in Malawi

  Cholesterol HDL Chol/HDL ratio LDL Creatinine CRP Albumin
Model 1: Schooling     
No Schooling ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Primary Schooling 1.04 1.08 1.33 1.13 1.14 1.27 0.91
  [0.70,1.55] [0.75,1.55] [0.91,1.95] [0.76,1.66] [0.75,1.72] [0.87,1.85] [0.63,1.31]
Secondary Schooling 0.79 0.62 1.39 0.54 1.98 1.22 0.62
  [0.25,2.56] [0.25,1.50] [0.56,3.45] [0.15,1.94] [0.79,4.97] [0.50,2.97] [0.22,1.76]
Model 2: Marital status     
Married (in 2008) 1.11 0.80 0.94 1.08 0.99 0.65 + 1.02
  [0.69,1.79] [0.52,1.22] [0.61,1.46] [0.68,1.72] [0.60,1.63] [0.42,1.01] [0.64,1.61]
Model 3: Religion (major groups)     
Christian/Other/None ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Muslim 1.18 0.89 0.95 1.07 0.68 + 0.68 0.85
  [0.80,1.73] [0.63,1.24] [0.67,1.36] [0.74,1.55] [0.47,1.00] [0.48,0.95] [0.60,1.20]
Model 4: Wealth (based on asset-based wealth tertiles)     
1st (poorest) 1.05 1.17 0.79 1.09 1.38 0.77 0.97
  [0.68,1.62] [0.79,1.72] [0.52,1.19] [0.71,1.67] [0.88,2.15] [0.52,1.16] [0.66,1.44]
2nd (middle) ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
3th (wealthiest) 1.08 1.25 1.15 1.30 1.49 + 1.02 0.75
  [0.70,1.67] [0.85,1.85] [0.77,1.71] [0.86,1.99] [0.94,2.34] [0.68,1.52] [0.50,1.13]
Model 5: Body mass index (BMI) (reference category: normal)
Underweight 0.81 0.74 0.63 0.77 0.55 + 0.69 1.42
  [0.45,1.46] [0.42,1.31] [0.34,1.16] [0.43,1.39] [0.28,1.06] [0.39,1.24] [0.85,2.36]
Normal ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Overwght/obese 2.11 1.14 2.65 2.65 1.39 1.35 0.71
  [1.14,3.90] [0.59,2.18] [1.46,4.81] [1.46,4.81] [0.68,2.86] [0.69,2.62] [0.34,1.47]
BMI missing 1.00 1.54 1.52 1.20 0.79 1.13 1.01
  [0.66,1.51] [1.09,2.16] [1.06,2.18] [0.80,1.79] [0.53,1.17] [0.78,1.62] [0.70,1.46]
  1. p-values: + p <0.10, p <0.05, p <0.01. 95% Confidence intervals in parentheses. Models control for gender, age group (separate for males/females), and currently pregnant (females only).