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Table 2 Odds ratios for appendiceal rupture among children in the United States.

From: Pediatric appendicitis rupture rate: a national indicator of disparities in healthcare access

   Unadjusted race/ethnicity odds Race/ethnicity odds adjusted for biologic factors With additional adjustments for social and system factors With additional adjustments for hospital factors
Race/ethnicity white ref ref ref ref
  black 1.40 (1.27–1.55) 1.38 (1.25–1.53) 1.27 (1.14–1.42) 1.23 (1.10–1.37)
  Hispanic 1.36 (1.28–1.44) 1.24 (1.17–1.31) 1.14 (1.07–1.22) 1.07 (1.00–1.15)
  Asian 1.37 (1.16–1.61) 1.32 (1.13–1.52) 1.29 (1.10–1.53) 1.24 (1.05–1.46)
Gender male   1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 0.99 (0.94–1.05)
  female   ref ref ref
Age group 4–8   2.05 (1.90–2.21) 2.02 (1.87–2.18) 1.90 (1.76–2.06)
  9–11   1.36 (1.25–1.47) 1.36 (1.25–1.47) 1.30 (1.20–1.41)
  12–14   1.32 (1.23–1.42) 1.31 (1.22–1.42) 1.28 (1.18–1.38)
  15–18   ref ref ref
ZIP code median annual household income $0–$24,999    1.15 (1.05–1.27) 1.13 (1.02–1.24)
  $25,000–$34,999    1.06 (0.99–1.14) 1.11 (1.03–1.20)
  $35,000–$44,999    1.00 (0.93–1.08) 1.04 (0.96–1.12)
  ≥ $45,000    ref ref
Expected primary payer private    ref ref
  public    1.10 (0.99–1.23) 1.09 (0.98–1.21)
  other    0.87 (0.78–0.97) 0.87 (0.78–0.96)
Admission source emergency department    ref ref
  other healthcare referral    1.28 (1.19–1.38) 1.29 (1.20–1.39)
  other    1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.05 (0.95–1.16)
Hospital type teaching     1.06 (0.99–1.14)
  other     ref
Pediatric discharge volume 4–1,578     0.72 (0.65–0.80)
  1,579–3,471     0.73 (0.66–0.80)
  3,472–6,582     0.79 (0.73–0.86)
  6,583–22,785     ref
Sample size unweighted 32,784 32,773 30,940 30,940
  weighted 62,555 62,533 57,791 57,791