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Table 1 Prevalences at birth of selected defects in girls born the Provinces of Mantova, Sondrio and Varese, Region of Lombardy, 1999

From: Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

Birth defects Number of cases Birth prevalence/10,000 and 95%CI
Anencephaly 0 0 (0–6.3)
Spin bifida 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Encephalocele 0 0 (0–6.3)
Microcephaly 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Arhinencephaly/holoprosencephaly 4 6.8 (1.9–17.4)
Hydrocephaly 4 6.8 (1.9–17.4)
Buphtalmos 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Congenital cataract 2 3.4 (0.4–12.3)
Anotia/microtia 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Transposition of great vessels 4 6.8 (1.9–17.4)
Tetralogy of Fallot 2 3.4 (0.4–12.3)
Ventricular septal defect 42 71.3 (51.4–96.4)
Atrial septal defect 4 6.8 (1.9–17.4)
Endocardial cushion defects 3 5.1 (1.1–14.9)
Ebstein's anomaly 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 0 0 (0–6.3)
Coarctation of aorta 3 5.1 (1.1–14.9)
Choanal atresia, bilateral 0 0 (0–6.3)
Cleft palate without cleft lip 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 2 3.4 (0.4–12.3)
Oesophageal atresia/stenosis 4 6.8 (1.9–17.4)
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Small intestine atresia/stenosis 0 0 (0–6.3)
Anorectal atresia/stenosis 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Hirschsprung's disease 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Anomalies of intestinal fixation 0 0 (0–6.3)
Hypospadias   
Indeterminate sex 0 0 (0–6.3)
Renal agenesis 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Cystic kidney 3 5.1 (1.1–14.9)
Bladder exstrophy 0 0 (0–6.3)
Polydactyly and syndactyly 4 6.8 (1.9–17.4)
Total limb reduction defects Not analysed Not analysed
Diaphragmatic hernia 1 1.7 (0–9.5)
Omphalocele 0 0 (0–6.3)
Gastroschisis 0 0 (0–6.3)
Trisomy 13 0 0 (0–6.3)
Trisomy 18 0 0 (0–6.3)
Down syndrome 6 10.2 (3.7–22.2)
Prader Willi syndrome 0 0 (0–6.3)
Total 98 166.4