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Table 2 Prevalences at birth of selected defects in boys born in the Provinces of Mantova, Sondrio and Varese, Region of Lombardy, 1999

From: Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

Birth defect Number of cases Birth prevalence/10,000 and 95% CI
Anencephaly 0 0 (0–6)
Spina bifida 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Encephalocele 0 0 (0–6)
Microcephaly 3 4.9 (1–14.3)
Arhinencephaly/Holoprosencephaly 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Hydrocephaly 3 4.9 (1–14.3)
Buphtalmos 0 0 (0–6)
Congenital cataract 2 3.3 (0.4–11.8)
Anotia/microtia 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Transposition of great vessels 4 6.5 (1.8–16.7)
Tetralogy of Fallot 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Ventricular septal defect 28 45.6 (30.4–66.2)
Atrial septal defect 9 14.7 (6.7–27.9)
Endocardial cushion defects 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Ebstein's anomaly 0 0 (0–6)
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Coarctation of aorta 6 9.8 (3.6–21.3)
Choanal atresia, bilateral 0 0 (0–6)
Cleft palate without cleft lip 5 8.2 (2.7–19.1)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 5 8.2 (2.7–19.1)
Oesophageal atresia/stenosis 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 12 19.6 (10.1–34.3)
Small intestine atresia/stenosis 2 3.3 (0.4–11.8)
Anorectal atresia/stenosis 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Hirschsprung's disease 3 4.9 (1–14.3)
Anomalies of intestinal fixation 2 3.3 (0.4–11.8)
Hypospadias 31 50.7 (34.4–71.9)
Indeterminate sex 0 0 (0–6)
Renal agenesis 3 4.9 (1–14.3)
Cystic kidney 3 4.9 (1–14.3)
Bladder exstrophy 0 0 (0–6)
Polydactyly and syndactyly 11 18 (9–32.2)
Total limb reduction defects Not analysed Not analysed
Diaphragmatic hernia 3 4.9 (1–14.3)
Omphalocele 0 0 (0–6)
Gastroschisis 0 0 (0–6)
Trisomy 13 0 0 (0–6)
Trisomy 18 0 0 (0–6)
Down syndrome 4 6.5 (1.8–16.7)
Prader Willi syndrome 1 1.6 (0–9.1)
Total 148 241.9