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Table 3 Comparison of overall birth prevalences (per 10,000) of selected defects in Lombardy (1999), Finland (1998), Georgia and Hawaii (1995–1999).

From: Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

   Lombardy Finland* Georgia° Hawaii°
Number of live births 12 008 57 108 216 009 89 079
Defects     
Total number 246 591 4836 1878
Total prevalence (/10,000) 204.9 103.5 223.9 233.6
Prevalence of individual defects (/10,000)     
1 Anencephaly 0 0.2 4.2 3.8
2 Spin bifida 1.7 3.2 4.4 5.2
3 Encephalocele 0 0.3 2.2 2.6
4 Microcephaly 3.3 1.6 8.4 8.5
5 Arhinencephaly/holoprosencephaly 4.2 0.9 Not reported Not reported
6 Hydrocephaly 5.8 3.2 8.0 11.6
7 Buphtalmos 0.83 Not reported Not reported Not reported
8 Congenital cataract 3.3 Not reported 1.9 1.8
9 Anotia/microtia 1.7 4.7 1.4 3.6
10 Transposition of great vessels 6.7 4.0 5.4 5.5
11 Tetralogy of Fallot 2.5 3.3 4.5 3.1
12 Ventricular septal defect 58.3 Not reported 35.6 43.4
13 Atrial septal defect 11 Not reported 25.3 22.8
14 Endocardial cushion defect 3.3 Not reported 5.5 2.6
15 Ebstein's anomaly 0.8 Not reported 0.7 0.9
16 Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 0.8 4.7 3.2 1.5
17 Coarctation of aorta 7.5 8.2 5.6 2.5
18 Choanal atresia, bilateral 0 0.9 1.8 1.2
19 Cleft palate without cleft lip 5.0 16.3 6.5 7.9
20 Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 5.8 8.0 9.3 14.5
21 Oesophageal atresia/stenosis 4.2 3.3 2.0 1.9
22 Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 10.8 Not reported 13.9 7.4
23 Small intestine atresia/stenosis 1.7 0.7 Not reported Not reported
24 Anorectal atresia/stenosis 1.7 4.7 3.5 4.8
25 Hirschsprung's disease 3.3 Not reported 2.1 2.2
26 Anomalies of fixation 1.7 Not reported Not reported Not reported
27 Hypospadias 25.8 2.6 35.1 29.6
27 Epispadia Not analysed 0.35 With hypospadia With hypospadia
28 Indeterminate sex 0 0.3 Not reported Not reported
29 Renal agenesis 3.3 0.7 4.4 5.6
30 Cystic kidney 5.0 3.3 Not reported Not reported
31 Bladder exstrophy 0 0.2 0.1 0.6
32 Polydactyly and syndactyly 12.5 2.8 Not reported Not reported
33 Total limb reduction defects Not analysed 5.6 5.8 4.7
34 Diaphragmatic hernia 3.3 2.1 2.0 2.6
35 Omphalocele 0 2.1 2.3 3.5
36 Gastroschisis 0 1.7 1.6 4.4
37 Trisomy 13 0 0.9 1.6 2.6
38 Trisomy 18 0 1.9 2.7 6.5
39 Down syndrome 8.3 10.5 12.4 16.0
40 Prader Willi syndrome 0.8 Not reported Not reported Not reported
  1. °Congenital Malformations Surveillance Report. A report from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network. Teratology 2002, 66 Suppl 1:S1-219
  2. *Surveillance and Research. http://www.icbd.org