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Table 3 Risk factors of maternal mortality at the household level, South Africa, 2001 (from linear logistic regression)

From: Maternal mortality in South Africa in 2001: From demographic census to epidemiological investigation

Household characteristics Beta Standard error Net effect Relative risk P-value Signif.
Level of education -0.0592 0.0131 287 0.83 0.0000 *
Wealth distance -0.0651 0.0231 298 0.86 0.0048 *
Urban areas 0.2477 0.1076 444 1.28 0.0213 *
Black/African (ref)    347 1.00   
Coloured -0.3624 0.2520 242 0.70 0.1504  
Indian -0.9890 0.5889 129 0.37 0.0931  
White -1.6661 0.5859 66 0.19 0.0045 *
Western Cape (Ref)    347 1.00   
Eastern Cape 0.8304 0.2709 792 2.28 0.0022 *
Northern Cape 0.3743 0.4357 504 1.45 0.3902  
Free State 0.6608 0.3017 670 1.93 0.0285 *
Kwazulu Natal 0.9320 0.2664 876 2.53 0.0005 *
North-West 0.8292 0.2857 791 2.28 0.0037 *
Gauteng 0.2955 0.2745 466 1.34 0.2818  
Mpumalanga 0.4790 0.3023 559 1.61 0.1131  
Limpopo 0.0882 0.3050 379 1.09 0.7724  
Constant -5.0586 0.2911 347    
  1. N.B. Reference categories: Race = Black/African, Province = Western Cape. Net effects are calculated for dummy variables, and for one standard deviation for quantitative variables (education and wealth). Education is measured in years of schooling. Wealth distance is counted as the distance in the wealth index from the average (6 items).