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Table 3 Associations of active ingredients (NCEs) with burden of disease (as measured by disability-adjusted life years and mortality) by region and country.

From: Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

  Mortality DALYs
  Coefficient ρ p-value Coefficient ρ p-value
Worldwide .417 .076 .490* .033
   High-income .485* .035 .606** .006
   Low- and middle-income .413 .079 .497* .030
EU-25 .449 .054 .619** .005
EU-15 .492* .032 .603** .006
   Austria .491* .033 .619** .005
   Belgium .554* .014 .637** .003
   Denmark .441 .059 .562** .012
   Finland .334 .162 .376 .113
   France .555* .014 .612** .005
   Germany .455 .050 .657** .002
   Greece .495* .031 .610** .006
   Ireland .484* .036 .504* .028
   Italy .455* .558 .641** .003
   Luxembourg .558* .013 .585** .008
   Netherlands .483* .036 .534* .018
   Portugal .476* .039 .663** .002
   Spain .518* .023 .620** .005
   Sweden .452 .052 .550* .015
   United Kingdom .476* .039 .564* .012
EU-10 .304 .206 .499* .030
   Cyprus .425 .070 .627** .004
   Czech Republic .337 .159 .487* .035
   Estonia .316 .188 .475* .040
   Hungary .373 .116 .501* .029
   Latvia .248 .306 .513* .025
   Lithuania .207 .394 .404 .086
   Malta .328 .171 .578** .010
   Poland .304 .206 .571* .011
   Slovakia .326 .173 .547* .015
   Slovenia .344 .149 .492* .032
  1. *p-value < .05 (bilateral); ** p-value < 0.01 (bilateral).
  2. EU-25 = all 25 EU countries in 2004. EU-15 = established EU countries. EU-10 = 10 newly joined EU countries. Data represent Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (ρ). DALYs = disability-adjusted life years.