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Table 5 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for individual- and community-level risk factors for under-5 mortality and region of residence

From: Regional inequalities in under-5 mortality in Nigeria: a population-based analysis of individual- and community-level determinants

Variables Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Fixed part   HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Region of residence      
North Central   1.51 (0.99 - 2.30) 1.50 (0.99 - 2.29) 1.31 (0.83 - 2.07) 1.27 (0.79 - 2.03)
North East   2.41 (1.63 - 3.57) 2.35 (1.59 - 3.49) 1.49 (0.94 - 2.26) 1.38 (0.83 - 2.29)
North West   2.28 (1.56 - 3.34) 2.23 (1.52 - 3.27) 1.41 (0.89 - 2.26) 1.29 (0.77 - 2.17)
South East   1.41 (0.88 - 2.26) 1.37 (0.85 - 2.21) 0.65 (0.35 - 1.23) 0.68 (0.36 - 1.28)
South South   1.85 (1.17 - 2.91) 1.82 (1.15 - 2.87) 1.36 (1.81 - 2.30) 1.30 (1.76 - 2.20)
South West   1 1 1 1
Sex of child      
Female    1.09 (0.93 - 1.27) 1.04 (0.87 - 1.24) 1.04 (0.87 - 1.24)
Male    1 1 1
Birth order      
First birth (order 1)    1.40 (1.16 - 1.68) 1.2 (0.99 - 1.68) 1.28 (0.98 - 1.68)
2 - 4 birth order    1 1 1
≥ 5 birth order    1.44 (1.16 - 1.80) 1.64 (1.24 - 2.18) 1.64 (1.24 - 2.17)
Mother's age      
≤ 23 years     1.01 (0.77 - 1.31) 1.02 (0.78 - 1.32)
24 - 28 years     1 1
≥ 34 years     0.84 (0.62 - 1.13) 0.84 (0.62 - 1.14)
Mother's age at birth of first child      
≤ 18 years     1.12 (0.88 - 1.42) 1.13 (0.88 - 1.44)
≥ 19 years     1 1
Marital status      
Single     0.72 (0.29 - 1.78) 0.73 (0.29 - 1.78)
Married     1 1
Divorced     1.75 (1.08 - 2.82) 1.76 (1.09 - 2.84)
Religion      
Muslim     1.09 (0.78 - 1.51) 1.08 (0.77 - 1.50)
Traditional     1.62 (0.78 - 3.36) 1.60 (0.77 - 3.34)
Christian     1 1
Mothers' education      
No education     2.24 (1.51 - 3.32) 2.17 (1.44 - 3.26)
Primary education     1.92 (1.35 - 2.74) 1.90 (1.32 - 2.75)
Secondary or higher education     1 1
Wealth index      
Poor     1.27 (0.98 - 1.63) 1.23 (0.95 - 1.59)
Middle     1 1
Rich     0.85 (0.62 - 1.17) 0.89 (0.64 - 1.22)
Cross-level interaction (mother's age at birth of first child & community prenatal care by doctor     0.94 (0.63 - 1.40) 1.15 (0.58 - 1.51)
Cross-level interaction (mother's education & community prenatal care by doctor     1.08 (0.25 - 1.76) 1.41 (1.21 - 1-78)
Community mother's education      
Low      1.05 (0.83 - 1.34)
Middle      1
High      1.02 (0.75 - 1.39)
Community prenatal care by doctor      
Low      1.36 (1.15 - 1.86)
High      1
Community hospital delivery      
Low      1.12 (0.87 - 1.45)
Middle      1
High      0.79 (0.52 - 1.22)
Random part Empty Region of residence Child-level Mother-level Community-level
ICC Mothers 8.2 7.2 3.5 3.3 3.3
Variance (SE) 0.316 (0.137) 0.271 (0.131)* 0.127 (0.125) 0.116 (0.124) 0.120 (0.122)
ICC Communities 6.6 5.3 5.4 3.3 3.1
Variance (SE) 0.253 (0.074) 0.200 (0.067)** 0.196 (0.065)** 0.118 (0.058)* 0.109 (0.055)*
Log likelihood -2407.81 -2392.61 -2383.53 -1768.31 -1763.13
  1. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001