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Table 3 Weighted prevalence rates (and 95% CIs) for tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men according to demographic and socio-economic variables in seven South and Southeast Asian countries in Demographic and Health Surveys

From: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

  Tobacco smoking (%)
  India Pakistan Nepal Bangladesh Maldives Indonesia Cambodia Timor Leste
Overall prevalence (%) 34.12 (33.64, 34.6) 31.55 (28.78, 34.31) 33.59 (31.23, 35.95) 60.01 (58.18, 61.84) 47.33 (44.16, 50.49) 72.30 (70.85, 73.75) 34.69 (33.16, 36.22) 69.49 (67.64, 71.25)
Urban 29.48 (28.79, 30.16) 27.95 (22.95, 32.96) 27.68 (24.64, 30.72) 54.77 (50.77, 58.78) 46.87 (40.32, 53.42) 69.05 (66.80, 71.29) 21.89 (19.21, 24.57) 63.99 (60.44, 67.54)
Rural 36.79 (36.15, 37.43) 33.51 (30.21, 36.81) 34.83 (32.05, 37.61) 61.55 (59.48, 63.62) 47.59 (44.33, 50.84) 75.63 (73.87, 77.40) 38.01 (36.25, 39.76) 71.46 (69.38, 73.53)
Age group (years)         
15-29 24.31 (23.68, 24.93) 21.15 (16.85, 25.45) 27.44 (24.72, 30.15) 56.94 (53.71, 60.18) 50.08 (43.67, 56.49) 77.27 (74.28, 80.27) 20.20 (18.55, 21.86) 60.76 (58.27, 63.26)
30-39 40.57 (39.60, 41.54) 30.45 (26.14, 34.76) 36.38 (31.73, 41.03) 57.68 (54.48, 60.88) 49.63 (44.08, 55.19) 73.16 (70.96, 75.36) 50.16 (47.04, 53.28) 80.15 (77.34, 82.95)
≥40 45.88 (44.90, 46.86) 39.94 (35.07, 44.82) 46.61 (42.01, 51.21) 63.27 (60.52, 66.01) 44.47 (40.15, 48.79) 69.91 (67.91, 71.90) 56.78 (53.77, 59.79) 79.47 (76.10, 82.85)
Marital status         
Married 41.64 (41.02, 42.27) 31.07 (28.25, 33.90) 40.52 (37.57, 43.48) 60.03 (58.17, 61.88) 46.42 (43.08, 49.77) 72.31 (70.86, 73.76) 48.47 (46.46, 50.47) 80.24 (78.06, 82.43)
Single* 20.52 (19.86, 21.19) 54.57 (37.57, 71.56) 21.43 (18.82, 24.04) 58.38 (39.87, 76.89) 62.91 (49.64, 76.18) 64.97 (41.88, 88.06) 15.30 (13.61, 16.98) 59.14 (56.66, 61.63)
Education         
No education 52.06 (50.82, 53.30) 40.41 (35.94, 44.87) 57.90 (52.58, 63.21) 72.33 (69.40, 75.26) 46.25 (41.65, 50.85) 72.32 (64.10, 80.55) 66.90 (62.12, 71.68) 81.42 (78.28, 84.57)
primary 44.87 (43.64, 46.10) 33.36 (27.75, 38.97) 42.83 (38.26, 47.40) 63.59 (60.58, 66.59) 52.40 (47.29, 57.51) 78.14 (75.94, 80.33) 46.17 (44.09, 48.26) 76.56 (73.72, 79.39)
Secondary 27.56 (26.95, 28.17) 28.92 (24.34, 33.49) 27.39 (24.37, 30.41) 51.88 (47.72, 56.04) 48.59 (42.38, 54.81) 73.12 (71.20, 75.04) 22.79 (20.95, 24.63) 62.03 (59.49, 64.56)
Higher 20.12 (19.00, 21.24) 18.56 (13.54, 23.57) 20.54 (16.71, 24.37) 35.63 (30.22, 41.04) 29.67 (20.39, 38.95) 50.86 (45.88, 55.85) 4.51 (2.67, 6.34) 60.60 (52.34, 68.85)
Wealth index         
Poorest 44.98 (43.61, 46.36) 32.86 (28.28, 37.45) 42.55 (36.92, 48.18) 70.12 (66.00, 74.23) 52.98 (46.13, 59.83) 80.98 (78.69, 83. 28) 52.40 (48.88, 55.93) 73.36 (69.81 (76.92)
Poorer 41.53 (40.30, 42.75) 35.22 (29.64, 40.80) 37.43 (33.11, 41.75) 63.97 (59.62, 68.32) 48.55 (42.52, 54.59) 78.80 (76.28, 81.31) 42.43 (39.21, 45.66) 73.09 (69.60, 76.58)
Middle 36.73 (35.67, 37.79) 36.51 (31.24, 41.79) 37.84 (32.31, 43.37) 63.18 (58.89, 67.47) 45.84 (40.71, 50.97) 76.62 (73.88, 79.35) 34.99 (31.91, 38.07) 71.81 (68.13, 75.48)
Richer 30.31 (29.37, 31.24) 32.64 (25.55, 39.73) 29.07 (24.29, 33.85) 56.43 (52.13, 60.74) 43.03 (35.14, 50.93) 68.11 (64.88, 71.34) 29.26 (26.67, 31.84) 69.19 (65.69, 72.69)
Richest 22.50 (21.70, 23.31) 21.9 (16.40, 27.39) 26.54 (23.17, 29.90) 46.81 (42.71, 50.91) 47.56 (39.32, 55.79) 57.91 (54.20, 61.62) 19.47 (17.03, 21.91) 61.54 (57.73, 65.35)
Religion         
Hindu 34.30 (33.77, 34.83) -------------- 34.19 (31.68, 36.70) --------------------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------- ----------------------
Islam 37.69 (36.28, 39.09) -------------- --------------------- 61.65 (53.54, 69.77) -------------------- -------------------- --------------------- -----------------------
Buddhist -------------------- -------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- 34.22 (32.69, 35.76) --------------------
Roman catholic -------------------- -------------- --------------------- --------------------- -------------------- -------------------- ---------------------- 69.78 (67.96, 71.59)
Others 23.56 (22.12, 25.00) -------------- 30.38 (25.56, 35.20) 59.83 (57.99, 61.68) -------------------- -------------------- 51.71 (42.92, 60.50) 51.02 (34.21, 67.82)
  Smokeless tobacco use (%)
  India Pakistan Nepal Bangladesh Maldives Indonesia Cambodia Timor Leste
Overall prevalence (%) 36.72 (36.23, 37.21) 16.30 (14.16, 18.43) 34.82 (32.4, 37.24) 21.35 (19.48, 23.22) 8.48 (7.02, 9.94) 0.46 (0.28, 0.64) 3.43 (2.88, 3.98) 2.48 (1.8, 3.15)
Urban 31.26 (30.56, 31.96) 20.13 (16.08, 24.17) 26.86 (23.22, 30.49) 20.19 (17.68, 22.71) 6.07 (3.34, 8.79) 0.13 (0.01, 0.25) 1.30 (0.62, 1.97) 1.86 (0.65, 3.08)
Rural 39.87 (39.21, 40.52) 14.21 (11.76, 16.66) 36.49 (33.67, 39.32) 22.53 (20.49, 24.57) 9.87 (8.16, 11.57) 0.78 (0.45, 1.12) 3.97 (3.30, 4.64) 2.69 (1.89, 3.50)
Age group (years)         
15-29 33.81 (33.11, 34.50) 21.04 (16.78, 25.30) 22.31 (19.50, 25.13) 14.30 (11.84, 16.76) 1.51 (−0.22, 3.25) 0.46 (0.15, 0.77) 1.96 (1.43, 2.50) 1.82 (1.16, 2.49)
30-39 42.03 (41.05, 43.02) 16.07 (12.84, 19.30) 50.86 (46.64, 55.07) 17. 90 (15.38, 20.43) 4.92 (2.81, 7.02) 0.37 (0.12, 0.61) 4.78 (3.72, 5.84) 3.11 (1.69, 4.53)
≥40 36.90 (35.92, 37.87) 13.27 (10.62, 15.93) 48.40 (43.88, 52.91) 28.09 (25.69, 30.49) 14.11 (11.38, 16.83) 0.52 (0.28, 0.76) 5.86 (4.66, 7.05) 3.40 (2.17, 4.63)
Marital status         
Married 41.38 (40.75, 42.01) 16.49 (14.33, 18.65) 47.28 (44.45, 50.11) 21.66 (20.09, 23.23) 8.72 (7.15, 10.29) 0.45 (0.27, 0.63) 4.72 (3.99, 5.45) 3.16 (2.20, 4.12)
Single* 28.30 (27.55, 29.06) 6.84 (1.12, 1.26) 12.97 (10.48, 15.46) 18.91 (6.22, 31.62) 3.94 (0.33, 7.55) 1.92 (−0.38, 4.22) 1.60 (1.11, 2.08) 1.81 (1.18, 2.45)
Education         
No education 45.58 (44.33, 46.83) 18.36 (14.45, 22.28) 57.79 (50.64, 64.95) 24.84 (22.09, 27.59) 17.21 (13.79, 20.63) 1.91 (−0.13, 3.96) 8.66 (6.00, 11.31) 4.17 (2.61, 5.73)
primary 44.25 (43.01,45.48) 19.77 (15.29, 24.26) 49.97 (45.83, 54.11) 25.25 (22.46, 28.04) 6.76 (3.67, 9.85) 0.79 (0.40, 1.18) 5.12 (4.16, 6.09) 2.70 (1.63, 3.77)
Secondary 34.39 (33.74, 35.05) 15.01 (11.83, 18.19) 27.71 (25.01, 30.41) 18.13 (15.45, 20.81) 1.96 (0.38, 3.54) 0.21 (0.10, 0.32) 1.42 (1.03, 1.81) 1.74 (1.11, 2.38)
Higher 22.97 (21.78, 24.15) 10.67 (7.27, 14.06) 18.39 (14.35, 22.44) 13.04 (9.91, 16.18) 4.31 (−1.18, 9.80) 0.03 (−0.03, 0.10) 0.08 (−0.03, 0.19) 1.93 (−0.43, 4.30)
Wealth index         
Poorest 51.51 (50.13, 52.90) 19.24 (14.08, 24.40) 42.90 (36.70, 49.09) 26.60 (23.18, 30.02) 11.13 (7.54, 14.71) 1.71 (0.98, 2.44) 7.21 (5.50, 8.92) 3.24 (1.90, 4.58)
Poorer 45.19 (43.95, 46.43) 16.50 (12.53, 20.47) 40.45 (35.34, 45.57) 25.38 (21.86, 28.90) 11.66 (7.86, 15.45) 0.25 (0.06, 0.43) 5.41 (3.93, 6.89) 3.61 (1.75, 5.48)
Middle 37.28 (36.19, 38.36) 14.69 (10.57, 18.80) 44.28 (38.14, 50.42) 24.13 (20.94, 27.31) 8.72 (5.82, 11.62) 0.38 (−0.00, 0.78) 3.34 (2.19, 4.48) 2.08 (1.13, 3.02)
Richer 32.52 (31.56, 33.49) 14.25 (10.52, 17.98) 29.87 (25.92, 33.82) 19.35 (16.26, 22.44) 6.83 (3.60, 10.07) 0.03 (−0.03, 0.09) 1.42 (0.93, 1.91) 2.32 (1.05, 3.59)
Richest 23.81 (22.97, 24.65) 17.00 (11.27, 22.74) 23.42 (19.31, 27.52) 15.65 (13.06, 18.25) 5.64 (2.24, 9.05) 0.10 (−0.01, 0.22) 0.79 (0.32, 1.25) 1.38 (0.41, 2.35)
Religion +         
Hindu 37.52 (36.97, 38.07) -------------- 35.53 (32.90, 38.15) ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- ----------------------
Islam 35.97 (34.53, 37.40) -------------- --------------------- --------------------- --------------------- --------------------- ---------------------- -----------------------
Buddhist -------------------- -------------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------- -------------------- 3.28 (2.72, 3.85) -----------------------
Roman catholic --------------------- -------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- ------------------- 2.41 (1.74, 3.08)
Others 26.74 (25.16, 28.32) -------------- 31.02 (25.76, 36.27) ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- 8.55 (2.31, 14.78) 5.75 (0.34, 11.16)
  1. Information about religion was not collected in these countries.
  2. *Includes never married, separated, and divorced.
  3. +For all countries except India (Hindu, Islam, and others), religion was grouped as main religion and others (for example Buddhist in Cambodia and Islam in Maldives, Indonesia, and Bangladesh).
  4. Up to 54 years in India, Indonesia, and Bangladesh and up to 64 years in Maldives.