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Table 4 Weighted prevalence rates (and 95% CIs) for tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among women according to demographic and socio-economic variables in seven South and Southeast Asian countries in Demographic and Health Surveys

From: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

  Tobacco smoking (%)
  India Pakistan Nepal Philippines Maldives Indonesia Cambodia Timor Leste
Overall prevalence (%) 2.2 (2.08, 2.31) 4.02 (3.28, 4.77) 9.75 (8.7, 10.8) 5.22 (4.81, 5.63) 4.6 (3.94, 5.25) 2.39 (2.15, 2.64) 2.41 (1.76, 3.07) 3.49 (3.07, 3.91)
Urban 0.81 (0.72, 0.91) 1.85 (1.08, 2.62) 4.83 (3.79, 5.88) 5.47 (4.89, 6.06) 4.58 (3.29, 5.88) 2.47 (2.10, 2.83) 0.63 (0.40, 0.85) 4.01 (2.93, 5.08)
Rural 2.87 (2.71, 3.03) 5.12 (4.09, 6.14) 10.57 (9.36, 11.78) 4.89 (4.34, 5.44) 4.61 (3.86, 5.35) 2.31 (1.99, 2.63) 2.88 (2.06, 3.70) 3.30 (2.87, 3.73)
Age group (years)         
15-29 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 1.61 (1.07, 2.17) 2.78 (2.20, 3.35) 3.86 (3.34, 4.37) 1.09 (0.52, 1.66) 1.47 (1.20, 1.75) 0.95 (0.49, 1.42) 1.44 (1.11, 1.77)
30-39 3.07 (2.81, 3.32) 4.29 (3.31, 5.27) 13.80 (11.92, 15.67) 5.54 (4.74, 6.34) 4.69 (3.48, 5.89) 2.49 (2.06, 2.91) 3.30 (2.48, 4.12) 4.74 (3.88, 5.61)
40-49 4.62 (4.24, 5.00) 7.53 (5.89, 9.16) 26.11 (23.17, 29.05) 8.04 (7.02, 9.05) 10.4 (8.74, 12.08) 3.86 (3.32, 4.40) 4.92 (3.28, 6.56) 7.85 (6.65, 9.04)
Marital status         
Married 2.60 (2.46, 2.74) 3.83 (3.13, 4.54) 11.77 (10.49, 13.05) 4.79 (4.13, 5.45) 3.91 (3.29, 4.53) 2.48 (2.21, 2.76) 2.89 (2.22, 3.56) 4.63 (4.03, 5.23)
Single* 1.00 (0.86, 1.14) 7.93 (3.95, 11.93) 3.41 (2.63, 4.19) 5.48 (4.96, 5.99) 11.69 (7.84, 15.54) 2.13 (1.75, 2.52) 1.65 (0.92, 2.38) 1.92 (1.52, 2.32)
Education         
No education 4.37 (4.12, 4.62) 6.49 (5.35, 7.65) 20.18 (17.78, 22.58) 14.49 (9.63, 19.34) 10.16 (8.42, 11.91) 8.14 (5.46, 10.82) 8.60 (6.39, 10.82) 6.21 (5.32, 7.11)
primary 1.64 (1.41, 1.87) 1.27 (0.56, 1.99) 7.52 (5.97, 9.08) 8.08 (6.97, 9.20) 4.68 (3.53, 5.84) 2.59 (2.21, 2.96) 2.08 (1.44, 2.72) 3.92 (3.16, 4.69)
Secondary 0.44 (0.37, 0.51) 0.50 (0.18, 0.84) 1.09 (0.69, 1.48) 4.70 (4.12, 5.27) 1.22 (0.63, 1.82) 2.10 (1.80, 2.41) 0.06 (−0.0, 0.12 1.60 (1.22, 1.98)
Higher 0.23 (0.10, 0.35) 0.28 (0.04, 0.59) 0.27 (−0.02, 0.56) 3.89 (3.27, 4.50) 2.74 (−1.71, 7.21) 1.51 (0.95, 2.07) --------------------- 1.62 (0.09, 3.15)
Wealth index         
Poorest 4.91 (4.50, 5.32) 8.77 (6.65, 10.88) 23.75 (20.90, 26.59) 6.93 (5.90, 7.95) 6.55 (5.05, 8.06) 3.89 (3.18, 4.61) 5.99 (4.09, 7.89) 4.10 (3.26, 4.95)
Poorer 3.45 (3.11, 3.79) 5.47 (3.94, 7.01) 12.56 (10.51, 14.61) 5.77 (4.76, 6.78) 5.18 (3.88, 6.48) 2.39 (1.88, 2.90) 3.64 (2.30, 4.98) 4.23 (3.28, 5.17)
Middle 1.97 (1.75, 2.19) 3.94 (2.89, 4.98) 7.74 (6.41, 9.07) 5.32 (4.33, 6.31) 3.89 (2.80, 4.98) 1.92 (1.51, 2.33) 2.02 (1.42, 2.62) 3.42 (2.63, 4.21)
Richer 0.92 (0.78, 1.07) 2.01 (1.07, 2.94) 5.56 (4.29, 6.84) 4.21 (3.44, 4.98) 3.73 (2.29, 5.18) 2.32 (1.76, 2.89) 1.01 (0.61, 1.41) 2.79 (2.11, 3.47)
Richest 0.42 (0.33, 0.50) 0.37 (0.13, 0.61) 2.78 (1.88, 3.67) 4.52 (3.72, 5.31) 3.89 (2.23, 5.55) 1.72 (1.28, 2.17) 0.21 (0.07, 0.35) 3.09 (2.11, 4.06)
Religion +         
Hindu 2.28 (2.15, 2.40) ---------------- 9.46 (8.34, 10.58) -------------------- ---------------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------------------
Islam 2.27 (1.93, 2.60) ---------------- -------------------- ------------------- ----------------------- -------------------- --------------------- --------------------
Buddhist -------------------- ---------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- 2.14 (1.48, 2.80) ---------------------
Roman catholic ------------------ ---------------- -------------------- 5.50 (5.02, 5.97) -------------------- --------------------- -------------------- 3.50 (3.07, 3.93)
Others 0.93 (0.74, 1.12) ---------------- 11.28 (8.86, 13.70) 4.11 (3.39, 4.83) --------------------- --------------------- 12.14 (6.94, 17.34) 3.02 (1.03, 5.01)
  Smokeless tobacco use (%)
  India Pakistan Nepal Philippines Maldives Indonesia Cambodia Timor Leste
Overall prevalence (%) 9.0 (8.8, 9.21) 2.44 (1.94, 2.96) 4.75 (3.8, 5.68) 0.32 (0.23, 0.41) 4.23 (3.46, 5.0) 0.41 (0.29, 0.52) 5.13 (4.52, 5.75) 1.93 (1.65, 2.2)
Urban 5.99 (5.71, 6.27) 2.07 (1.42, 2.72) 2.46 (1.60, 3.33) 0.12 (0.05, 0.20) 2.49 (0.99, 3.98) 0.16 (0.07, 0.24) 0.72 (0.35, 1.09) 1.65 (1.07, 2.23)
Rural 10.47 (10.20, 10.74) 2.64 (1.95, 3.33) 5.12 (4.03, 6.20) 0.55 (0.38, 0.73) 5.10 (4.19, 5.99) 0.67 (0.45, 0.88) 6.30 (5.53, 7.07) 2.02 (1.71, 2.33)
Age group (years)         
15-29 5.19 (4.98, 5.40) 1.42 (0.89, 1.94) 2.03 (1.47, 2.59) 0.08 (0.02, 0.14) 0.16 (0.31, 0.96) 0.29 (0.16, 0.42) 0.86 (0.55, 1.17) 0.41 (0.26, 0.57)
30-39 12.42 (11.97, 12.88) 2.35 (1.69, 3.00) 6.48 (5.01, 7.96) 0.26 (0.11, 0.41) 4.01 (2.87, 5.14) 0.42 (0.27, 0.56) 5.82 (4.64, 7.01) 2.17 (1.66, 2.68)
40-49 15.33 (14.72, 15.93) 4.26 (3.11, 5.40) 10.82 (8.51, 13.12) 0.94 (0.60, 1.27) 10.63 (8.77, 12.50) 0.57 (0.40, 0.75) 14.33(12.67, 15.99) 6.00 (4.92, 7.07)
Marital status         
Married 10.22 (9.97, 10.48) 2.36 (1.85, 2.87) 5.81 (4.66, 6.96) 0.09 (0.00, 0.17) 4.17 (3.39, 4.95) 0.41 (0.29, 0.54) 6.49 (5.61, 7.36) 2.66 (2.24, 3.07)
Single* 5.37 (5.06, 5.68) 4.33 (2.39, 6.28) 1.36 (0.84, 1.87) 0.46 (0.32, 0.59) 4.80 (2.70, 6.91) 0.38 (0.23, 0.52) 2.97 (2.48, 3.46) 0.92 (0.66, 1.17)
Education         
No education 14.49 (14.09, 14.90) 3.56 (2.76, 4.36) 7.94 (6.29, 9.59) 5.66 (2.69, 8.64) 11.61 (9.63, 13.59) 2.26 (1.09, 3.44) 12.91 (10.94,14.87) 4.37 (3.65, 5.08)
Primary 10.63 (10.07, 11.20) 1.52 (0.83, 2.22) 6.13 (4.18, 8.07) 0.72 (0.42, 1.02) 4.04 (2.42, 5.67) 0.52 (0.36, 0.68) 5.78 (5.04, 6.52) 1.84 (1.33, 2.35)
Secondary 3.95 (3.73, 4.16) 0.93 (0.49, 1.38) 1.42 (0.97, 1.86) 0.16 (0.07, 0.25) 0.20 (0.00, 0.40) 0.29 (0.16, 0.42) 0.72 (0.44, 1.0) 0.49 (0.30, 0.69)
Higher 1.10 (0.87, 1.33) 0.10 (0.08, 0.27) 0.16 (−0.15, 0.47) 0.09 (−0.01, 0.19) 0.77 (−0.33, 1.88) 0.03 (−0.01, 0.08) ------------------- --------------------
Wealth index         
Poorest 17.81 (17.14, 18.49) 4.64 (2.97, 6.31) 9.67 (6.27, 13.07) 1.19 (0.78, 1.60) 7.85 (6.04, 9.67) 1.29 (0.84, 1.73) 11.14 (9.53, 12.75) 3.66 (2.78, 4.55)
Poorer 11.99 (11.44, 12.53) 2.40 (1.50, 3.30) 6.22 (4.54, 7.90) 0.47 (0.21, 0.73) 5.54 (4.16, 6.93) 0.46 (0.21, 0.71) 7.46 (6.22, 8.71) 1.89 (1.33, 2.45)
Middle 8.60 (8.16, 9.04) 2.13 (1.29, 2.96) 4.29 (3.09, 5.49) 0.11 (−0.00, 0.24) 3.29 (2.30, 4.28) 0.28 (0.13, 0.43) 5.76 (4.76, 6.76) 1.80 (1.31, 2.30)
Richer 5.89 (5.54, 6.25) 2.34 (1.61, 3.07) 3.52 (2.47, 4.58) 0.10 (−0.04, 0.24) 2.74 (1.55, 3.91) 0.08 (−0.00, 0.17) 2.31 (1.54, 3.07) 1.56 (1.06, 2.07)
Richest 2.88 (2.64, 3.11) 0.88 (0.48, 1.29) 1.37 (0.91, 1.83) --------------------- 2.23 (−0.11, 4.59) 0.09 (0.00, 0.18) 0.60 (0.30, 0.90) 1.05 (0.60, 1.51)
Religion +         
Hindu 8.96 (8.73, 9.18) --------------- 4.37 (3.37, 5.36) --------------------- --------------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------------------
Islam 9.34 (8.76, 9.92) --------------- -------------------- --------------------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------------------
Buddhist --------------------- --------------- --------------------- --------------------- --------------------- --------------------- 5.03 (4.41, 5.64)  
Roman catholic ------------------ --------------- --------------------- 0.27 (0.17, 0.37) --------------------- -------------------- --------------------- 1.94 (1.66, 2.22)
Others 8.86 (8.19, 9.53) --------------- 6.70 (4.58, 8.81) 0.48 (0.26, 0.70) --------------------- -------------------- 8.78 (3.25, 14.31) 1.08 (0.08, 2.07)
  1. Information about religion was not collected in these countries.
  2. *Includes never married, separated, and divorced.
  3. +For all countries except India (Hindu, Islam, and others), religion was grouped as main religion and others (for example Buddhist in Cambodia and Islam in Maldives, Indonesia, and Bangladesh).