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Table 5 Binary logistic regression analyses for demographic and socio-economic factors associated with tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women of nine South and Southeast Asian countries in Demographic and Health Surveys

From: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

  Tobacco smoking (men)
  India (β, 95 % CIs) p-value Pakistan p-value Nepal (β, 95% CIs) p-value Bangladesh (β, 95% CIs) p-value Maldives(β, 95% CIs) p-value Indonesia(β, 95 % CIs) p-value Cambodia (β, 95% CIs) p-value Timor Leste (β, 95% CIs) p-value
Urban/Rural −0.11 (−0.16, −0.05) <0.001 0.15 (−0.16, 0.46) 0.334 0.08 (−0.17, 0.33) 0.541 −0.02 (−0.23, 0.19) 0.852 −0.36 (−0.77, 0.06) 0.092 −0.09 (−0.25, 0.06) 0.225 −0.05 (−0.25, 0.16) <0.647 0.12 (−0.10, 0.34) 0.290
Age (years) 0.03 (0.03, 0.03) <0.001 0.04 (0.02, 0.05) <0.001 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) <0.001 0.01 (−0.00, 0.02) 0.066 −0.03 (−0.04, −0.01) 0.001 −0.01 (−0.02, −0.01) <0.001 0.07(0.06, 0.08) <0.001 0.06 (0.05, 0.08) <0.001
Marital status −0.41 (−0.48, −0.34) <0.001 0.83 (0.10, 1.57) 0.027 −0.38 (−0.62, −0.14) 0.002 −0.06 (−0.95, 0.82) 0.891 0.69 (0.08, 1.30) 0.027 −0.96 (−1.67, −0.26) 0.008 −0.56 (−0.76, −0.36) <0.001 −0.14 (−0.33, 0.05) 0.158
Education −0.34 (−0.37, −0.31) <0.001 −0.27 (−0.39, −0.14) <0.001 −0.47 (−0.58, −0.36) <0.001 −0.44 (−0.55, −0.33) <0.001 −0.28 (−0.44, −0.12) 0.001 −0.32 (−0.43, −0.21) <0.001 −0.69 (−0.80,-0.58) <0.001 −0.32 (−0.43, −0.20) <0.001
Wealth index −0.15 (−0.18, −0.13) <0.001 −0.02 (−0.13, 0.10) 0.767 −0.03 (−0.12, 0.05) 0.423 −0.09 (−0.17, −0.02) 0.019 −0.10 (−0.22, 0.03) 0.121 −0.23 (−0.29, −0.17) <0.001 −0.25 (−0.31, −0.19) <0.001 −0.06 (−0.12, 0.01) 0.092
Religion + −0.10 (−0.14, −0.07) <0.001 --------- -------- −0.30 (−0.55, −0.05) 0.019 0.17 (−0.17, 0.51) 0.325 --------- -------- ----------- --------- 0.73 (0.25, 1.21) <0.003 −0.98 (−1.78, −0.18) 0.016
  Smokeless tobacco use (men)
Urban/Rural −0.14 (−0.19, −0.09) <0.001 −0.82 (−1.15, −0.49) <0.001 0.12 (−0.14, 0.38) 0.355 −0.06 (−0.32, 0.20) 0.657 −0.08 (−0.77, 0.61) 0.815 0.77(0.03, 1.51) 0.042 −0.07 (−0.72, 0.58) <0.833 −0.02 (−0.75, 0.71) 0.956
Age (years) −0.00(−0.01, −0.00) 0.005 −0.03 (−0.05, −0.01) 0.001 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) <0.001 0.04 (0.03, 0.05) <0.001 0.05 (0.03, 0.08) <0.001 0.02 (−0.02, 0.06) 0.335 0.04 (0.03, 0.06) <0.001 0.02 (−0.01, 0.05) 0.272
Marital status −0.55 (−0.62, −0.49) <0.001 −1.10 (−2.08, −0.13) 0.027 −1.19 (−1.48, −0.91) <0.001 −0.28 (−1.24, 0.68) 0.562 −0.77 (−1.75, 0.20) 0.12 0.25 (−1.11, 1.62) 0.717 −0.15 (−0.46, 0.15) <0.330 −0.27 (−0.86, 0.33) 0.381
Education −0.07 (−0.10, −0.04) <0.001 −0.21 (−0.36, −0.06) 0.006 −0.41 (−0.56, −0.26) <0.001 −0.09 (−0.19, 0.02) 0.107 −0.50 (−0.94, −0.07) 0.024 −0.63 (−1.12, −0.14) 0.012 −0.50 (−0.69, −0.30) <0.001 −0.25 (−0.50, 0.01) 0.055
Wealth index −0.28 (−0.30, −0.26) <0.001 −0.14 (−0.28, 0.00) 0.054 −0.10 (−0.19, −0.00) 0.041 −0.16 (−0.24, −0.08) <0.001 −0.09 (−0.28, 0.09) 0.328 −0.69 (−1.13, −0.25) 0.002 −0.44 (−0.60, −0.28) <0.001 −0.16 (−0.32, 0.01) 0.063
Religion + −0.14 (−0.17, −0.10) <0.001 ---------- --------- −0.35 (−0.64, −0.06) 0.017 −0.15 (−0.55, 0.24) 0.438 --------- --------- --------- --------- 0.82 (−0.02, 1.67) <0.057 0.90 (−0.07, 1.87) 0.068
  Tobacco smoking (women)
  India   Pakistan   Nepal   Philippines   Maldives   Indonesia   Cambodia   Timor Leste  
Urban/Rural 0.36 (0.21, 0.51) <0.001 −0.15 (−0.68, 0.37) 0.566 −0.24 (−0.56, 0.07) 0.125 −0.39 (−0.57, −0.21) <0.001 −0.82 (−1.35, −0.30) 0.002 −0.41 (−0.61, −0.21) <0.001 0.06 (−0.43, 0.54) <0.821 −0.60 (−0.93, −0.27) <0.001
Age (years) 0.07 (0.06, 0.07) <0.001 0.07 (0.05, 0.09) <0.001 0.10 (0.09, 0.11) <0.001 0.04 (0.03, 0.05) <0.001 0.08 (0.05, 0.10) <0.001 0.05 (0.04, 0.06) <0.001 0.06 (0.05, 0.07) <0.001 0.07 (0.05, 0.08) <0.001
Marital status −0.16 (−0.32, −0.00) 0.050 0.45(−0.11, 1.00) 0.116 −0.21 (−0.47, 0.06) 0.129 −0.40 (−0.62, −0.19) <0.001 0.30 (0.15, 0.46) <0.001 0.35 (0.12, 0.58) 0.003 0.00 (−0.32, 0.32) <0.996 −0.06 (−0.32, 0.21) 0.674
Education −0.60 (−0.69, −0.52) <0.001 −0.81(−1.07, −0.56) <0.001 −0.67 (−0.82, −0.52) <0.001 −0.37 (−0.49, −0.25) <0.001 −0.40 (−0.76, −0.03) 0.032 −0.16 (−0.34, 0.02) 0.075 −1.17 (−1.39, −0.95) <0.001 −0.37 (−0.52, −0.21) <0.001
Wealthindex −0.38 (−0.43, −0.33) <0.001 −0.49(−0.64, −0.34 <0.001 −0.53 (−0.63, −0.43) <0.001 −0.12 (−0.19, −0.05) 0.001 −0.28 (−0.43, −0.12) 0.001 −0.22 (−0.30, −0.15) <0.001 −0.50 (−0.63, −0.38) <0.001 −0.08 (−0.17, 0.02) 0.115
Religion + −0.10 (−0.20, −0.00) 0.042 -------- -------- 0.15 (−0.14, 0.44 0.307 −0.40 (−0.61, −0.19) <0.001 --------- --------- --------- --------- 1.63 (1.08, 2.18) <0.001 −0.13 (−0.79, 0.53) <0.704
  Smokeless tobacco use (women)
Urban/Rural −0.21 (−0.27, −0.14) <0.001 −0.63 (−1.09, −0.18) 0.007 −0.01(−0.44, 0.43) 0.968 0.19 (−0.57, 0.95) 0.628 −0.34 (−0.98, 0.31) <0.306 0.57 (−0.03, 1.18) 0.064 1.07 (0.49, 1.65) <0.001 −0.48 (−0.86, −0.10) 0.013
Age (years) 0.06 (0.05, 0.06) <0.001 0.05 (0.03, 0.07) <0.001 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) <0.001 0.10 (0.06, 0.14) <0.001 0.10 (0.06, 0.14) <0.001 0.04 (0.01, 0.06) 0.006 0.12 (0.11, 0.13) <0.001 0.10 (0.08, 0.11) 0.000
Marital status −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02) 0.192 0.33 (−0.17, 0.84) 0.195 −0.72 (−1.10, −0.34) <0.001 0.22 (−0.75, 1.19) 0.652 −0.08 (−0.25, 0.09) <0.364 0.44 (−0.02, 0.90) 0.061 −0.19 (−0.40, 0.01) <0.067 0.03 (−0.29, 0.36) 0.841
Education −0.28 (−0.32, −0.24) <0.001 −0.60 (−0.83, −0.36) <0.001 −0.19 (−0.36, −0.01) <0.040 −0.62 (−1.16, −0.08) 0.023 −0.54 (−1.06, −0.03) <0.040 −0.37 (−0.83, 0.09) 0.115 −0.48 (−0.64, −0.31) <0.001 −0.54 (−0.77, −0.31) <0.001
Wealthindex −0.42 (−0.45, −0.39) <0.001 −0.31 (−0.46, −0.16) <0.001 −0.39 (−0.55, −0.24) <0.001 −0.78 (−1.11, −0.45) <0.001 −0.34 (−0.52, −0.16) <0.001 −0.61 (−0.80, −0.42) <0.001 −0.48 (−0.57, −0.39) <0.001 −0.20 (−0.32, −0.08) 0.001
Religion + 0.13 (0.08, 0.17) <0.001 ------------ -------- 0.45 (0.03, 0.86) 0.037 −0.08 (−0.67, 0.52) 0.803 --------- --------- --------- --------- 0.54 (−0.26, 1.34) <0.188 −0.63 (−1.60, 0.34) 0.203
  1. Information about religion was not collected in these countries.
  2. +For all countries except India (Hindu, Islam, and others), religion was grouped as main religion and others (for example Buddhist in Cambodia and Islam in Maldives, Indonesia, and Bangladesh).