Skip to main content

Table 3 Overall and abdominal obesity by place of residence, physiological, and socio-economic factors among 35- to 70-year-old Tunisian women (complete-case analysis n = 2,633)

From: Abdominal vs. overall obesity among women in a nutrition transition context: geographic and socio-economic patterns of abdominal-only obesity in Tunisia

   Overall obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) Abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 88 cm)
   Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda
  n %b ORc C.I.d ORc C.I.d %b ORc C.I.d ORc C.I.d
Place of residence            
Area    P < 0.0001 P = 0.021   P < 0.0001 P = 0.45
   Rural 1184 24.1% 1 - 1 - 49.7% 1 - 1 -
   Urban 1449 45.0% 2.6 2.0-3.3 1.4 1.1-1.7 67.7% 2.1 1.6-2.7 1.1 0.9-1.5
Region    P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001   P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001
   South-West 366 32.9% 1 - 1 - 43.1% 1 - 1 -
   Center-West 433 25.0% 0.7 0.5-1.0 1.0 0.7-1.5 42.4% 1.0 0.6-1.5 1.2 0.8-1.9
   North-West 440 26.5% 0.7 0.5-1.2 1.0 0.7-1.6 42.8% 1.0 0.7-1.5 1.3 0.9-2.0
   South-East 384 44.9% 1.7 1.1-2.6 1.7 1.1-2.6 77.2% 4.5 3.1-6.4 5.0 3.4-7.2
   Center-East 366 39.9% 1.4 0.9-2.0 1.3 0.9-1.9 63.9% 2.3 1.6-3.4 2.5 1.7-3.8
   North-East 326 35.7% 1.1 0.8-1.7 1.3 0.9-1.8 65.1% 2.5 1.7-3.6 3.1 2.1-4.7
   Greater Tunis 318 49.3% 1.9 1.3-3.0 1.7 1.1-2.5 77.1% 4.4 2.7-7.4 5.4 3.5-8.2
Physiological factors            
Age    P = 0.029 P = 0.035   P < 0.0001 P = 0.018
   35-44 y. 886 34.0% 1 - 1 - 53.6% 1 - 1 -
   45-54 y. 937 42.5% 1.4 1.1-1.9 1.6 1.1-2.2 66.2% 1.7 1.3-2.2 1.5 1.1-2.1
   55-70 y. 810 38.6% 1.2 1.0-1.6 1.5 1.0-2.2 68.5% 1.9 1.4-2.5 1.5 1.0-2.2
Menopause    P = 0.96 P = 0.22   P = 0.001 P = 0.46
   No 1242 37.9% 1 - 1 - 57.5% 1 - 1 -
   Yes 1391 38.0% 1.0 0.8-1.2 0.8 0.6-1.1 66.3% 1.5 1.2-1.8 1.1 0.8-1.5
Parity    P = 0.023 P = 0.55   P = 0.22 P = 0.019
   1st tertile (0-3) 772 38.4% 1 - 1 - 58.4% 1 - 1 -
   2nd tertile (4-5) 819 41.6% 1.1 0.9-1.5 1.2 0.9-1.5 63.7% 1.3 1.0-1.6 1.3 1.0-1.7
   3rd tertile (6+) 1042 33.8% 0.8 0.6-1.1 1.0 0.7-1.4 63.4% 1.2 0.9-1.6 1.5 1.1-2.0
Socio-economic position          
Marital status    P = 0.65 P = 0.89   P = 0.63 P = 0.55
   Other 443 39.2% 1 - 1 - 65.4% 1 - 1 -
   Married 2190 37.7% 0.9 0.7-1.2 1.0 0.7-1.3 61.0% 0.8 0.6-1.1 0.9 0.7-1.2
Education    P < 0.0001 P = 0.12   P = 0.0081 P = 0.048
   No formal schooling 1550 32.5% 1 - 1 - 59.1% 1 - 1 -
   Primary school 769 45.6% 1.7 1.4-2.2 1.2 0.9-1.6 67.3% 1.4 1.1-1.8 1.1 0.9-1.5
   Secondary or more 314 39.8% 1.4 1.0-1.9 0.9 0.5-1.4 59.0% 1.0 0.7-1.4 0.7 0.5-1.1
Professional activity    P = 0.54 P = 0.079   P = 0.035 P = 0.014
   Not working/Retired 2142 38.6% 1 - 1 - 63.9% 1 - 1 -
   Employee/worker 376 38.0% 1.0 0.7-1.4 1.0 0.7-1.5 54.9% 0.7 0.5-1.0 0.7 0.5-1.0
   Upper/Intermediate 115 31.9% 0.7 0.4-1.3 0.5 0.3-0.9 53.5% 0.7 0.4-1.1 0.5 0.3-0.9
Household welfare index e    P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001   P < 0.0001 P < 0.001
   1st quintile 710 17.0% 1 - 1 - 41.8% 1 - 1 -
   2nd quintile 657 33.6% 2.5 1.8-3.5 1.9 1.4-2.7 59.4% 2.0 1.5-2.7 1.6 1.2-2.1
   3rd quintile 568 45.3% 4.0 2.9-5.6 2.8 2.0-4.0 70.0% 3.1 2.3-4.1 2.2 1.6-3.0
   4th quintile 385 50.5% 5.0 3.5-7.0 3.5 2.4-5.2 72.8% 3.7 2.7-5.3 2.7 1.9-3.9
   5th quintile 313 46.9% 4.3 2.9-6.4 3.6 2.3-5.7 68.2% 3.0 1.9-4.7 2.8 1.9-4.3
  1. aAssociation of response variable with each place of residence, physiological, or socio-economic variable adjusted for all other variables in column 1.
  2. bPrevalence proportion (weighted estimates).
  3. cPrevalence Odds-Ratio vs. reference category for which OR = 1, taking into account sampling design.
  4. d0.95 confidence interval taking into account sampling design.
  5. eIncreasing household welfare level from 1st to 5th quintile.