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Table 2 Study characteristics of nine validation studies of HRQL instruments in patients with a TBI

From: Health-related quality of life after TBI: a systematic review of study design, instruments, measurement properties, and outcome

First author, year, reference HRQL instrument1 Country Study population2 Assessment time points
Findler, 2001 [42] SF-36 USA n = 326 (M: 60%). RR: n.a. Age: 16–64 (mean: 34). Variable: at least 1 year post-injury
MacKenzie, 2002 [43] SF-36 USA n = 1230 (M: 66%). RR: 78% Age: 18–59 (mean: n.a.) 1 year post-injury
Guilfoyle, 2010 [44] SF-36 United Kingdom n = 456 (M: 76%). RR: 88% Age: 18+ (mean: 37) Between 1 and 24 months after TBI (mean 6 months)
Von Steinbuechel, 2010 [45] QOLIBRI Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, Netherlands, UK, USA, Australia, and Germany n = 573 (M: 72%). RR: 62% Age: 15+ (mean: 39) Between 3 months to 15 years post-injury (mean: 5 years)
Lin, 2013 [50] QOLIBRI Taiwan N = 301 (M: 61%). RR: 97%% Age: 15+ (mean: 40) During admission and 1 year
Von Steinbuechel, 2012 [46] QOLIBRI-OS Germany n = 153 (M: 67%). RR: 62% Age: 15+ (mean: 39) between 3 months to 15 years post-injury (mean: 5 years)
Teasdale, 1997 [47] EBIQ Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, Netherlands, UK, USA, Australia, and Germany n = 258 (M: 62%). RR: n.a. Age: 16–93 (mean: 48) Mean 31.8 months post- injury
Thomas-Stonell, 2006 [48] CHQ Canada n = 33 (M: 67%). RR: n.a. Age: 4–18 (mean: 13) During admission and follow-up - 11–150 days (mean: 38 days)
Chiu, 2006 [49] WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan n = 199 (M: 64%). RR: 56% Age: (mean: 45) Discharge (mean: n.a.)
  1. 1CHQ = Child Health Questionnaire; EBIQ = European Brain Injury Questionnaire; QOLIBRI = Quality of Life after Brain Injury; QOLIBRI-OS = QOLIBRI overall scale; SF-36 = Medical Outcome Study Short form-36 items; WHOQOL-BREF = Short version of the WHOQOL.
  2. 2Study population: N = sample size responders; M = males: RR = response rate.
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