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Table 3 Contributions of population composition (P-effects) and mortality (M-effects) to changes in standard deviation by time periods (in years)

From: Disparities in length of life across developed countries: measuring and decomposing changes over time within and between country groups

  Males Females
  1970–1984 1984–1994 1994–2004 2004–2010a 1970–1984 1984–1994 1994–2004 2004–2010a
Total change in overall StD: 1.96 2.09 0.36 −0.90 1.47 1.30 0.30 −0.49
  P-effect 0.01 −0.04 −0.18 −0.10 0.00 −0.03 −0.08 −0.05
  M-effect 1.95 2.12 0.54 −0.80 1.47 1.33 0.38 −0.44
Total change in between-group StD: 2.23 2.09 0.41 −0.88 1.74 1.22 0.12 −0.48
  P-effect 0.01 −0.03 −0.18 −0.10 0.00 −0.03 −0.09 −0.05
  M-effect 2.22 2.13 0.59 −0.78 1.74 1.26 0.21 −0.42
Total change in within-group StD: 0.03 0.31 −0.15 −0.19 0.09 0.44 0.45 −0.14
  P-effect 0.00 −0.01 −0.02 −0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  M-effect 0.02 0.33 −0.12 −0.18 0.09 0.44 0.45 −0.14
  1. Note: aYears in the range 2008–2010 depending on availability (see Appendix 3)