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Table 1 Factors associated with current tobacco use among adult Bhutanese aged 18-69 years, STEPS Survey, 2014

From: Current tobacco use and its associated factors among adults in a country with comprehensive ban on tobacco: findings from the nationally representative STEPS survey, Bhutan, 2014

Characteristics Total Tobacco use (%)a PR (95 % CI)a Adjusted PR (95 % CI)a
Total 2820 24.8 - -
Age groups
 18–24 281 23.4 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 1.6 (1.2–2.1)
 25–34 762 29.1 1.5 (1.4–1.5) 1.5 (1.2–1.8)
 35–44 751 24.9 1.3 (1.2–1.3) 1.1* (0.9–1.4)
 45–54 572 19.9 Ref Ref
 55–69 456 20.2 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0* (0.7–1.3)
Gender
 Male 1074 33.6 2.5 (2.4–2.5) 2.4 (2.0–3.0)
 Female 1748 13.6 Ref Ref
Highest level of education
 Secondary 421 26.7 1.3 (1.2–1.3) 1.2* (1.0–1.4)
 Primary 632 31.8 1.5 (1.5–1.5) 1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 No formal schooling 1766 21.0 Ref Ref
Occupation
 Employed 480 29.8 1.9 (1.8–1.9) 0.9* (0.7–1.2)
 Self employed 1558 26.8 1.7 (1.7–1.7) 1.3 (1.1–1.6)
 Unpaid/student/homemaker 782 15.8 Ref Ref
Marital status
 Never married 225 22.9 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.5 (0.4–0.7)
 Married/co-habiting 2278 24.8 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.7 (0.6–0.9)
 Separated/widowed/divorced 317 27.9 Ref Ref
Alcohol use
 Yes 1,360 32.6 1.9 (1.9–1.9) 1.8 (1.5–2.0)
 No 1,459 17.1 Ref Ref
Secondhand smoke exposure
 Yes 777 32.3 1.5 (1.5–1.5) 1.2 (1.1–1.3)
 No 2045 21.5 Ref Ref
Exposure to tobacco warnings
 Yes 2201 24.1 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.0)
 No 619 27.81 Ref Ref
Family history of NCDsb
 Yes 1247 27.1 1.2 (1.2–1.2) 1.2 (1.1–1.3)
 No 1572 23.0 Ref Ref
Physical activityc
 Yes 2417 26.1 Ref Ref
 No 402 16.4 0.6 (0.6–0.7) 0.7 (0.6–0.9)
  1. Only significant variables in the multivariate model are shown in table, other variables included in the analysis were history of NCDs, place of residence (rural vs. urban), and advice by health workers
  2. aWeighted analysis, PR- unadjusted prevalence ratio, NCD- Non-communicable diseases
  3. bBlood family members (sibling, parent, grandparent, aunt or uncle) been diagnosed with following; diabetes or raised blood sugar, raised blood pressure, stroke, cancer or malignant tumor, raised cholesterol, early heart attack, asthma or chronic lung disease (COPD) or kidney disease
  4. cWork involves vigorous/moderate-intensity activity that causes large increases in breathing or heart rate
  5. *Not significant at P-value <0.05