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Table 2 Factors associated with current smoked form of tobacco use among adult Bhutanese aged 18–69 years, STEPS Survey, 2014

From: Current tobacco use and its associated factors among adults in a country with comprehensive ban on tobacco: findings from the nationally representative STEPS survey, Bhutan, 2014

Characteristics Total Current Smokers (%)a PR (95 % CI)a Adjusted PR (95 % CI)a
Total 2822 7.4 - -
Age groups (years)
 18–24 281 11.3 3.6 (3.4–3.9) 3.0 (1.5–6.2)
 25–34 762 11.7 3.7 (3.5–4.0) 2.9 (1.5–5.5)
 35–44 751 4.1 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 1.0* (0.5–2.2)
 45–54 572 3.1 ref Ref
 55–69 456 3.7 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.5* (0.1–2.1)
Gender
 Male 1074 10.8 3.5 (3.3–3.6) 3.3 (2.2–5.0)
 Female 1748 3.1 Ref Ref
Highest level of education
 Secondary 421 15.2 3.4 (3.3–3.5) 1.7 (1.3–2.3)
 Primary 632 8.4 1.9 (1.8–1.9) 1.0 (0.7–1.3)
 No formal schooling 1766 4.5 Ref Ref
Place of residence
 Urban 870 11.1 1.9 (1.9–2.0) 1.7 (1.4–2.2)
 Rural 1952 5.8 Ref Ref
Marital status
 Never married 225 11.2 1.9 (1.7–2.0) 0.6 (0.3–1.0)
 Married/co-habiting 2278 7.1 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.7* (0.5–1.2)
 Separated/widowed/divorced 317 6.0 Ref Ref
Occupation
 Employed 480 11.6 3.1 (2.9–3.2) 0.8* (0.6–1.2)
 Self employed 1558 7.3 1.9 (1.9–2.0) 1.8 (1.2–2.6)
 Unpaid/student/homemaker 782 3.8 Ref Ref
Alcohol use
 Yes 1,360 9.4 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.5 (1.2–1.9)
 No 1,459 5.5 Ref Ref
Exposure to secondhand smoke
 Yes 777 13.5 1.7 (1.4–2.2) 1.7 (1.4–2.2)
 No 2045 4.7 Ref Ref
Advice by health workers
 Yes 1148 6.6 0.8 (0.6–0.9) 0.8 (0.7–0.9)
 No 1671 8.0 Ref Ref
History of NCDsb
 Yes 609 3.5 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 0.5 (0.3–0.9)
 No 2210 8.3 Ref Ref
  1. Only significant variables in the multivariate model are shown in this table; other variables included in the analysis were family history of NCDs, and physical activity
  2. aWeighted analysis, PR- unadjusted prevalence ratio, NCD- Non-communicable diseases
  3. bSelf-reported history of raised blood pressure, diabetes, raised total cholesterol, and cardiovascular diseases
  4. *Not significant at P-value <0.05