Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Factors associated with current smokeless tobacco use among adult Bhutanese aged 18–69 years, STEPS Survey, 2014

From: Current tobacco use and its associated factors among adults in a country with comprehensive ban on tobacco: findings from the nationally representative STEPS survey, Bhutan, 2014

Characteristics Total Current Smokeless Tobacco user (%)a PR (95 % CI)a Adjusted PR (95 % CI)a
Total 2820 19.7 - -
Age groups
 18–24 281 16.6 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 1.8 (1.4–2.5)
 25–34 762 20.8 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 1.5 (1.2–1.8)
 35–44 751 22.2 1.3 (1.2–1.3) 1.2* (0.9–1.5)
 45–54 572 17.8 Ref Ref
 55–69 456 17.2 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.9* (0.6–1.2)
Gender
 Male 1074 26.5 2.4 (2.4–2.5) 2.7 (2.1–3.4)
 Female 1748 11.0 Ref Ref
Highest level of education
 Secondary 421 15.2 0.8 (0.8–0.8) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 Primary 632 25.5 1.4 (1.4–1.4) 1.3* (1.1–1.5)
 No formal schooling 1766 18.5 Ref Ref
Marital status
 Never married 225 16.5 0.8 (0.7–0.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.7)
 Married/co-habiting 2278 19.9 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.8* (0.6–1.1)
 Separated/widowed/divorced 317 22.2 Ref Ref
Alcohol use
 Yes 1,360 27.1 2.2 (2.2–2.2) 2.2 (1.9–2.7)
 No 1,459 12.3 Ref Ref
Exposure to tobacco warnings in general
 Yes 2201 18.5 0.8 (0.7–0.8) 0.8 (0.7–0.9)
 No 619 24.6 Ref Ref
Family history of NCDsb
Yes 1247 21.1 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 1.2 (1.1–1.4)
No 1572 18.6 Ref Ref
Physical activityc
Yes 2417 9.7 Ref Ref
No 402 21.3 0.5 (0.4–0.5) 0.6 (0.4–0.8)
  1. Only significant variables in the multivariate model are shown in table, other variables included in the analysis were history of NCDs, place of residence (rural vs. urban), occupation, and advice by health workers
  2. aWeighted analysis, PR- unadjusted prevalence ratio, NCD- Non-communicable diseases
  3. bBlood family members (sibling, parent, grandparent, aunt or uncle) been diagnosed with following; diabetes or raised blood sugar, raised blood pressure, stroke, cancer or malignant tumor, raised cholesterol, early heart attack (below age 50 for men and below age 55 for women), asthma or chronic lung disease (COPD) or kidney disease
  4. cWork involves vigorous/moderate-intensity activity that causes large increases in breathing or heart rate
  5. *Not significant at P-value <0.05