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Table 1 Characteristics of included residents

From: Oral/dental items in the resident assessment instrument – minimum Data Set 2.0 lack validity: results of a retrospective, longitudinal validation study

  Assessment number
  1 2 3 4 5 6
Sample size
 All residents (n or more assessments) 2711 2711 1240 537 161 8
 Residents with exactly n assessments NA 1471 703 376 153 8
Age assessment
 Age (Mean ± SD) 84.4 ± 8.9 85.4 ± 8.9 86.0 ± 8.8 86.6 ± 8.4 86.2 ± 8.7 82.3 ± 13.1
  < 65 years 101 (3.7 %) 86 (3.2 %) 34 (2.7 %) 10 (1.9 %) 3 (1.9 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 65–74 years 221 (8.2 %) 197 (7.3 %) 96 (7.7 %) 38 (7.1 %) 14 (8.7 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 75–84 years 939 (34.6 %) 847 (31.2 %) 345 (27.8 %) 147 (27.4 %) 45 (28.0 %) 2 (25.0 %)
 85–94 years 1220 (45.0 %) 1288 (47.5 %) 601 (48.5 %) 264 (49.2 %) 77 (47.8 %) 3 (37.5 %)
  > 94 years 230 (8.5 %) 293 (10.8 %) 164 (13.2 %) 78 (14.5 %) 22 (13.7 %) 1 (12.5 %)
Sex
 Female 1849 (68.2 %) 1849 (68.2 %) 882 (71.1 %) 409 (76.2 %) 130 (80.7 %) 7 (87.5 %)
Physical functioning (Activities of Daily Living – Hierarchical (ADL-H) score)
 Independent (ADL-H < 2) 366 (13.5 %) 286 (0.5 %) 101 (8.1 %) 40 (7.4 %) 10 (6.2 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Medium dependent (ADL_H 2–4) 1775 (65.5 %) 1707 (63.0 %) 733 (59.1 %) 281 (52.3 %) 77 (47.8 %) 4 (50.0 %)
 Highly dependent (ADL_H > 4) 570 (21.0 %) 718 (26.5 %) 406 (32.7 %) 216 (40.2 %) 74 (46.0 %) 3 (37.5 %)
Cognition (Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) score)
 Relatively intact cognition (CPS < 2) 620 (22.9 %) 500 (18.4 %) 196 (15.8 %) 65 (12.1 %) 11 (6.8 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Mild/moderate impairment (CPS 2–3) 1440 (53.1 %) 1333 (49.2 %) 586 (47.3 %) 232 (43.2 %) 69 (42.9 %) 2 (25.0 %)
 Severe impairment (CPS > 3) 651 (24.0 %) 878 (32.4 %) 458 (36.9 %) 240 (44.7 %) 81 (50.3 %) 5 (62.5 %)
Behavior/mood
Resists care (at least once per week) 742 (27.4 %) 934 (34.5 %) 447 (36.0 %) 212 (39.5 %) 63 (39.1 %) 2 (25.0 %)
Depression Rating Scale score > 2 673 (24.8 %) 959 (35.4 %) 470 (37.9 %) 194 (36.1 %) 63 (39.1 %) 4 (50.0 %)
Medical diagnoses
 Dementia 1606 (59.2 %) 1813 (66.9 %) 856 (69.0 %) 393 (73.2 %) 120 (74.5 %) 6 (75.0 %)
 Diabetes mellitus 522 (19.3 %) 533 (19.7 %) 256 (20.6 %) 97 (18.1 %) 30 (18.6 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Atherosclerotic heart disease 175 (5.8 %) 134 (4.9 %) 62 (5.0 %) 22 (4.1 %) 2 (1.2 %) 0 (0.0 %)
 Pneumonia 42 (1.5 %) 36 (1.3 %) 12 (1.0 %) 5 (0.9 %) 2 (1.2 %) 0 (0.0 %)
Dentate status
 Dentate 754 (27.8 %) 528 (19.5 %) 182 (14.7 %) 64 (11.9 %) 19 (11.8 %) 0 (0.0 %)
 Dentures 1502 (55.4 %) 1633 (60.2 %) 757 (61.0 %) 343 (63.9 %) 88 (54.7 %) 5 (62.5 %)
 No dentures 455 (16.8 %) 550 (20.3 %) 301 (24.3 %) 130 (24.2 %) 54 (33.5 %) 3 (37.5 %)
Oral health
 No problems 2582 (95.2 %) 2572 (94.9 %) 1170 (94.4 %) 509 (94.8 %) 153 (95.0 %) 7 (87.5 %)
 Tooth problems (L1d = yes)a 96 (3.5 %) 104 (3.8 %) 54 (4.4 %) 24 (4.5 %) 6 (3.7 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Periodontal problems (L1e = yes)a 26 (1.0 %) 31 (1.1 %) 15 (1.2 %) 6 (1.1 %) 3 (1.9 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Mouth pain (K1c = yes)a 28 (1.0 %) 21 (0.8 %) 9 (0.7 %) 5 (0.9 %) 2 (1.2 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Any oral/dental problemb 129 (4.8 %) 139 (5.1 %) 70 (5.6 %) 28 (5.2 %) 8 (5.0 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 Chewing problem (K1a = yes) 355 (13.1 %) 480 (17.7 %) 295 (23.8 %) 134 (25.0 %) 52 (32.3 %) 3 (37.5 %)
 Swallowing problem (K1b = yes) 324 (12.0 %) 425 (15.7 %) 225 (18.1 %) 103 (19.2 %) 40 (24.8 %) 3 (37.5 %)
 Debris (L1a = yes) 284 (10.5 %) 317 (11.7 %) 140 (11.3 %) 64 (11.9 %) 24 (14.9 %) 1 (12.5 %)
 No daily cleaning (L1f = no) 171 (6.3 %) 103 (3.8 %) 33 (2.7 %) 10 (1.9 %) 1 (0.6 %) 0 (0.0 %)
  1. aSum of Residents with L1d = yes, L1e = yes and K1c = yes may be bigger than the number of residents with oral/dental issues, as residents may have more than on oral/dental problem
  2. bCount of residents who had one or more of tooth problems, periodontal problems, or mouth pain