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Table 1 Comparison of institutional structures of death registration systems in Hong Kong and Shanghai

From: The incomparability of cause of death statistics under “one country, two systems”: Shanghai versus Hong Kong

Data compilation process Hong Kong Shanghai
Coverage Compulsory registration of death events Yes Yes
Required time for registration after death 24 hours Before cremation
Coverage De-facto (All deaths within the territory) De-jure (permanent residents of Shanghai based on household register)
Number of physicians per 10,000 population in 2008 18 27
Data initiation Who certifies death for those dying in hospital Attending doctors Attending doctors
Who certifies death for those dying outside hospital without a doctor attending Coroners Non-criminal: community doctors; Criminal: police
CODa coding Coding rule of COD ICD-10 (ACME)b ICD-10 (Manual)
Data audit Clinical record review for COD If person dies from infectious disease; deaths with insufficient information to determine UCD Case of death when the causal sequence is not specific or only the mechanism of death is reported
Training for physicians to certify death No Yes
  1. aCause of death
  2. bAutomated Classification of Medical Entries
  3. Sources of data: Shanghai Municipal Statistical Bureau, National Bureau of Statistics Survey (Shanghai Groups) (2009) [18]; The Hong Kong Council of Social Service (2016) [19]; Zhao (2013) [20].