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Table 1 Top 10 ICD-9 codes flagged as “major garbage codes” in the mortality database of Antananarivo (1976–2015), according to the GBD classification

From: Estimating cause-specific mortality in Madagascar: an evaluation of death notification data from the capital city

RankICD-9 codes% of deathsCode descriptionGarbage code levelListed as garbage code by the WHO
1428.95.9Heart failure, unspecified1Yes
3799.92.9Other unknown and unspecified cause of mortality1Yes
4785.51.8Shock without mention of trauma (symptoms involving cardiovascular system)1Yes
54281.0Congestive heart failure, unspecified1Yes
65861.0Renal failure, unspecified1No
7799.10.9Respiratory arrest2Yes
8578.90.8Hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract2No