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Table 2 League table of the 21 New Zealand cost-effectiveness studies identified and published in the period 1 January 2010 to 8 October 2017 (ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness, with additional details on each study in the Additional file 1: Tables A2, A4, and A5)

From: Can cost-effectiveness results be combined into a coherent league table? Case study from one high-income country

Study reference Intervention* Reported ICER (NZ$)** ICER (NZ$ 2017)**
Cost-saving interventions   
 Leung et al. [20] Pedometer-based promotion in primary care versus time-based activity goals via green prescriptions Cost-saving Cost-saving
 O’Keeffe et al. [21] and Scott et al. [22] Diagnosis and treatment pathways for insomnia for a range of practitioners including: pharmacists, general practitioners (GPs), psychologists, other health professionals, and alternative health practitioners Cost-saving Cost-saving
 Lew et al. [23] Primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening with partial genotyping in both unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination Cost-saving relative to current practice; One strategy (S2a): $20,600 per QALY saved in unvaccinated scenario; $9770 in vaccinated scenario (both compared to next best strategy) (2015 NZ$) Cost-saving to 20,800 (for S2a strategy)
 Friedman et al. [24] Proposed national programme to prevent paediatric abusive head trauma (AHT, often known as “shaken baby syndrome”) Cost-saving in most scenarios, i.e., where reduction in AHT is 30% or more and intervention cost is between $20 and $100 per new-born. However, some estimates were as high as $471,000 per QALY (2012 NZ$) Cost-saving to 492,000
Cost-effective interventions   
 Gander et al. [25] Diagnosis and treatment pathways for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) from GP level through to surgical intervention $94 per QALY (2005 NZ$) 121
 Lake et al. [26] Campylobacter control in NZ poultry meat supply: interventions at all points from farm to consumer (as per the situation in 2005) Range: from NZ$1200 per DALY (primary processing interventions) to NZ$43,400 per DALY (irradiation at primary processing stage) (2009 NZ$) 1360 to 49,300
 Webb et al. [27] A “soft regulation” national policy for dietary sodium reduction that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education (modelled on the UK programme) I$989/DALY (using 2013 I$) 1480
 Maddison et al. [28] Improving exercise capacity and physical activity through a mobile phone / online intervention in addition to usual care, for people with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) $2690 per QALY (for the 12 month timeframe) (2012 NZ$) 2810
 Dalziel et al. [29] A broad range of interventions to prevent neural tube defects (from targeted promotion of folic acid supplement to voluntary/mandatory folic acid fortification of the food supply) $2700 per DALY for physician advice for supplement use; $6500 per DALY for a health promotion campaign for supplement use; (both targeted at women around the time of conception) (2006 NZ$) 3370 and 8120
 Sopina and Ashton [30] 18 different cervical cancer screening combinations (e.g., based on usage of the HPV vaccine, screening interval length (3 or 5 years), etc. $3560 to $10,200 per QALY (for a “no vaccine” base case comparison) (2009 NZ$) 4040 to 11,540
 Panattoni et al. [31] Treatment of acute coronary syndrome with prasugrel if the person is a carrier of the CYP2C19*2 allele (if not a carrier of this allele, the person gets treatment with clopidogrel) $4480 per QALY when using prasugrel instead of clopidogrel; and $8700 per QALY (if the former is genetically guided) (2009 NZ$). 5080 and 9880
 Simms et al. [32] Strategies for screening for HPV in context of a nonavalent vaccine (“HPV9 vaccine”) $5000 per LY saved for 5 screens per lifetime (for cohorts offered nonavalent vaccine) (2013 NZ$) 5170
 Te Ao et al. [33] Increasing the use of thrombolysis treatment for ischaemic stroke by increasing hospital presentations and / or increasing use of thrombolysis treatment in hospital $6640 per QALY (lifetime) and $27,000 (first year) (2010 NZ$) 7380 and 30,000
 Te Ao et al. [34] Acute stroke units in NZ hospitals (as opposed to care on general wards) $6750 per QALY (lifetime) and $42,800 per QALY (first year) for care in an acute stroke unit vs a general ward (2008 NZ$) 7960 and 50,500
 Keall et al. [35] Package of home modifications to reduce injuries from falls at home $14,300 per DALY when just considering intervention costs, i.e., no cost offsets (2012 NZ$). 14,900
 Milne et al. [36] Long-term air humidification therapy plus usual care for people with moderate/severe COPD/bronchiectasis $20,900 per QALY (mean) (2012–2013 NZ$) 21,600
 Rush et al. [37] A multicomponent through-school physical activity and nutrition programme (“Project Energize”) Range from $22,200 to $30,400 per QALY (depending on age and ethnicity) (2011 NZ$) 24,100 to 33,100
 Pinto et al. [38] Knee/hip osteoarthritis (OA) treatment: manual therapy, exercise therapy, or both, plus usual care Range from $26,400 per QALY (exercise therapy) to $149,000 (combined therapy) from the health system perspective (2009 NZ$) 30,000 to 169,000
 Carrasco et al. [39] Antiviral stockpiling for future influenza pandemics (relative to no stockpiling) Approximately US$20,000 per QALY (for the most plausible scenario of 30% of misallocation of antivirals) (2010 US$) 33,200
Not cost-effective interventions   
 Harris et al. [40] Planned early start for dialysis treatment based on kidney function for patients with progressive chronic kidney disease. 72% of results indicated reduced health gain and increased costs. Only 0.3% of iterations gave a positive QALY at under $50,000 per QALY Not estimated
 Leung et al. [41] Exercise counselling intervention to enhance smoking cessation $451,000 per QALY (using 24 week follow-up) (2012 NZ$) 455,000
  1. *The comparator is current practice/usual care unless otherwise specified (with more details in Table A4 in Additional file 1)
  2. **All values are rounded to three meaningful digits