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Table 4 Determinants of lack of awareness of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in multivariable models

From: Prevalence, determinants and association of unawareness of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with poor disease control in a multi-ethnic Asian population without cardiovascular disease

 DiabetesHypertensionHypercholesterolemia
VariableOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age (years)1.00 (0.99, 1.01)0.90.97 (0.96, 0.98)< 0.0010.99 (0.98,1.00)0.05
 40-49 yearsRef Ref Ref 
 50-59 years1.28 (0.95, 1.71)0.0990.72 (0.59, 0.87)0.0010.72 (0.57, 0.91)0.006
 60-69 years1.24 (0.89, 1.71)0.20.51 (0.41, 0.63)< 0.0010.67 (0.52, 0.87)0.003
 ≥ 70 years1.04 (0.70, 1.53)0.90.43 (0.34, 0.56)< 0.0010.79 (0.57, 1.08)0.1
Body mass index (kg/m2)1.04 (1.02, 1.06)< 0.0010.94 (0.92, 0.95)< 0.0010.98 (0.96, 1.00)0.018
 Normal/underweightRef Ref Ref 
 Overweight1.02 (0.78, 1.35)0.8800.75 (0.65, 0.88)< 0.0010.79 (0.66, 0.96)0.017
 Obese1.50 (1.13, 1.98)0.0050.52 (0.43, 0.61)< 0.0010.75 (0.60, 0.94)0.011
Number of self-reported non-CVD comorbid conditions*0.71 (0.60, 0.83)< 0.0010.93 (0.84, 1.02)0.10.80 (0.70, 0.90)< 0.001
Self-reported hypercholesterolemia0.34 (0.27, 0.41)< 0.0010.22 (0.19, 0.25)< 0.001--
Self-reported hypertension0.51 (0.41, 0.64)< 0.0010.20 (0.16, 0.23)< 0.001
Self-reported diabetes0.52 (0.44, 0.61)< 0.0010.32 (0.26, 0.40)< 0.001
Gender
 MaleRef Ref Ref 
 Female0.99 (0.77, 1.28)0.90.89 (0.76, 1.04)0.10.97 (0.80, 1.18)0.8
Ethnicity
 ChineseRef Ref Ref 
 Malay1.33 (1.01, 1.75)0.0461.44 (1.23, 1.69)< 0.0012.68 (2.18, 3.31)< 0.001
 Indian0.58 (0.44, 0.76)< 0.0011.24 (1.05,1.46)0.0101.11 (0.91, 1.35)0.3
Income < S$10000.94 (0.71, 1.24)0.70.93 (0.78, 1.12)0.50.90 (0.72, 1.13)0.4
≤ 6 years education1.10 (0.86, 1.41)0.41.00 (0.85, 1.17)0.91.29 (1.05, 1.57)0.013
Alcohol drinker0.97 (0.64, 1.46)0.91.01 (0.79, 1.28)0.90.85 (0.62, 1.16)0.3
Current smoker1.17 (0.87, 1.58)0.31.29 (1.06, 1.58)0.0121.35 (1.05, 1.74)0.018
Occupation
 Professionals and office workersRef Ref Ref 
 Service workers, production workers or cleaners0.85 (0.62, 1.18)0.31.02 (0.82, 1.26)0.91.32 (1.02,1.69)0.033
 Homemakers, retirees, unemployed or others0.65 (0.45, 0.93)0.0171.12 (0.89, 1.41)0.31.54 (1.16, 2.05)0.003
Marital Status
 Never marriedRef Ref Ref 
 Married0.90 (0.55, 1.48)0.71.20 (0.90, 1.61)0.20.58 (0.41, 0.81)0.002
 Separated or divorced0.86 (0.42, 1.76)0.71.23 (0.80, 1.89)0.30.70 (0.42, 1.17)0.2
 Widowed0.71 (0.40, 1.26)0.21.22 (0.87, 1.72)0.20.83 (0.55, 1.26)0.4
Housing
 5 room HDB and aboveRef Ref Ref 
 3–4 room HDB or less0.80 (0.63, 1.02)0.071.03 (0.88, 1.20)0.71.13 (0.94, 1.37)0.2
  1. HDB Housing Development Board
  2. Includes ocular (cataract, myopia, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, eye trauma) and systemic non-CVD (e.g. thyroid disease) conditions
  3. Values in italics: P <0.05