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Table 1 Reported maternity care for births in 5 years preceding EN-INDEPTH survey by outcome (n = 15,591)

From: Stillbirth maternity care measurement and associated factors in population-based surveys: EN-INDEPTH study

  Children surviving the neonatal period
n = 12,620
Neonatal death
n = 1528
Late gestation stillbirth
n = 1033
Early gestation stillbirth
n = 410
  n % n % n % n %
Antenatal care providera
 Doctor 2106 16.7 379 24.8 278 26.9 65 15.9
 Midwife/nurse 8329 66.0 938 61.4 640 62.0 224 54.6
 Other 1053 8.3 72 4.7 30 2.9 16 3.9
 No ANC 1131 9.0 138 9.0 80 7.7 103 25.1
Number of ANC visits
 0 1131 9.0 138 9.0 80 7.7 103 25.1
 1 489 3.9 97 6.4 66 6.4 63 15.4
 2 887 7.0 135 8.8 96 9.3 70 17.1
 3 1920 15.2 212 13.9 167 16.2 60 14.6
 4 or more 7263 57.6 827 54.1 531 51.4 90 22.0
 Not known 925 7.3 117 7.7 88 8.5 22 5.4
Timing of 1st ANC visitb
 First trimester 1725 15.0 255 18.4 171 18.0 88 28.9
 Second trimester 8746 76.1 1005 72.4 685 72.3 209 68.5
 Third trimester 853 7.4 92 6.6 70 7.4 2 0.7
 Not known 164 1.4 37 2.7 22 2.3 6 2.0
Place of ANC
 Government facility only 7481 59.3 846 55.4 544 52.7 191 46.6
 Private facility only 2478 19.6 390 25.5 266 25.8 71 17.3
 Government and private 473 3.8 51 3.3 56 5.4 7 1.7
 Other only 1056 8.4 102 6.7 82 7.9 36 8.8
Birth attendantc
 Skilled provider 7411 58.7 1041 68.1 736 71.3 258 62.9
 Unskilled provider 4929 39.1 447 29.3 250 24.2 71 17.3
 None 278 2.2 38 2.5 41 4.0 78 19.0
Place of birth
 A home 4252 33.7 446 29.2 264 25.6 143 34.9
 Government hospital 2854 22.6 430 28.1 421 40.8 136 33.2
 Government health centre 2365 18.7 243 15.9 87 8.4 29 7.1
 Private sector 2092 16.6 272 17.8 184 17.8 62 15.1
 Other 1055 8.4 136 8.9 71 6.9 37 9.0
Mode of delivery
 Elective caesarean section 805 6.4 90 5.9 48 4.7 8 2.0
 Emergency caesarean section 894 7.1 160 10.5 112 10.8 15 3.7
 Vaginal birth 10,919 86.5 1277 83.6 867 83.9 384 93.7
Length of stay at facility
 0 to < 6 h 1259 16.7 127 12.8 81 11.7 38 16.7
 6 to < 12 h 1301 17.3 94 9.5 58 8.4 25 11.0
 12 to < 24 h 779 10.3 89 9.0 43 6.2 19 8.3
 1–2 days 2165 28.7 321 32.4 216 31.2 101 44.3
 3 or more days 2036 27.0 360 36.3 295 42.6 45 19.7
Postnatal check
 Yes 6498 85.4 847 84.5 596 84.3 184 79.0
 No 1109 14.6 155 15.5 111 15.7 49 21.0
  1. Reported maternity care for all births asked additional questions on pregnancy and birth in the EN-INDEPTH survey
  2. aRefers to the highest level provider. ANC provider not considered in further analyses in view of known concerns regarding the accuracy of women’s report of this
  3. bFor categorisation, trimesters were defined as first (< 13 weeks, < 3 months), second (13–27 weeks, 3–6 months), third (28 weeks, 7 months onwards)
  4. cIn view of potential difficulty of women knowing the skill of her provider, ‘skilled and unskilled’ healthcare provider groups are merged