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Table 3 Maternity care characteristics by late gestation stillbirth rates (FBH+ only, n = 14,991)

From: Stillbirth maternity care measurement and associated factors in population-based surveys: EN-INDEPTH study

  No. of births (% of total birthsa) No. of stillbirths Stillbirth rate per 1000 total births
  n % n n (95%CI)
Overall 14,991 100 227 15.2 (14.0–16.5)
Number of ANC visits
 0 1073 7.2 21 19.8 (15.0–26.1)
 1 709 4.7 15 20.9 (15.0–29.0)
 2 1110 7.3 21 18.6 (14.1–24.5)
 3 2119 14.1 36 16.8 (13.7–20.7)
 4 or more 8867 59.2 113 12.8 (11.3–14.4)
 Not known 1117 7.5 20 18.0 (13.6–23.9)
Timing of 1st ANC visit
 First trimester 2140 15.4 35 16.3 (13.2–20.1)
 Second trimester 10,405 74.8 150 14.4 (13.0–15.9)
 Third trimester 1099 7.9 16 14.2 (10.3–19.4)
 Not known 272 2.0 4 15.4 (8.0–29.4)
Place of ANC
 Government facility only 7920 56.9 113 14.2 (12.6–16.0)
 Private facility only 3686 26.5 58 15.7 (13.3–18.4)
 Government and private 583 4.2 11 19.5 (13.2–28.7)
 Other only 1726 12.4 22 13.0 (10.0–16.8)
Birth attendantb
 Skilled provider 9671 64.5 158 16.3 (14.8–18.1)
 Unskilled provider 4953 33.1 60 12.1 (10.3–14.2)
 None 361 2.4 8 21.1 (13.4–32.9)
Place of birth
 A home 4718 31.5 60 12.8 (10.9–15.0)
 Government hospital 3032 20.2 86 28.3 (24.6–32.5)
 Government health centre 2544 17.0 19 7.3 (5.5–9.7)
 Private sector 3011 20.1 41 13.5 (11.1–16.4)
 Other 1678 11.2 20 12.0 (9.0–15.9)
Mode of delivery     
 Elective caesarean section 1283 8.6 9 7.4 (4.9–11.1)
 Emergency caesarean section 1214 8.1 24 20.0 (15.5–25.7)
 Vaginal birth 12,487 83.3 192 15.4 (14.0–16.8)
Length of stay at facilityc
 0 to < 6 h 1203 13.3 19 16.1 (12.1–21.4)
 6 to < 12 h 1284 14.2 12 9.2 (6.4–13.1)
 12 to < 24 h 857 9.5 8 9.7 (6.4–14.8)
 1–2 days 2658 29.5 46 17.3 (14.3–20.9)
 3 or more days 3015 33.4 60 20.0 (17.0–23.6)
Postnatal check
 Yes 7999 87.7 125 15.6 (13.9–17.5)
 No 1122 12.3 23 20.6 (15.9–26.8)
  1. aWeighted number
  2. bIn view of potential difficulty of women knowing the skill of her provider, ‘skilled and unskilled’ healthcare provider groups are merged
  3. cFacility births only