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Table 3 Classification of answer correction type and possible explanations

From: Paradata analyses to inform population-based survey capture of pregnancy outcomes: EN-INDEPTH study

Answer correction pattern (from first to final answer entry) Multiple (> 1) corrections First and last entry match Correction type Problematic Possible explanation
Aa NO YES No correction NO n/a
A > A > A YES YES Impulsive NO Multiple tapping (e.g., due to tablet’s lag response)
A > Bb NO NO Flat (simple) correction NO Accidental mistake, correction, following clarification or mistake
A > nc > A YES YES Zigzag correction YES Corrections after multiple additional clarifications and confirmation (e.g., change in responses) and changed back to the original answer
A > n > B YES NO Flat zigzag correction YES Correction, following clarifications
A > … NO NO Missing after correction YES Accidental mistake corrected after clarification, request to skip or not to record the answer
A > B > … or A > n > B > … or A > n > A > … YES NO Missing after flat (zigzag) correction YES Clarification and consequent refusal to answer or request to skip or not to record the answer
NO YES Missing/incomplete YES Unknown
  1. astands for the original (first entered) answer
  2. brepresents a different answer in content than the original answer A
  3. crepresents a number of answer corrections between first and last answer in sequence