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Table 2 Spearman’s correlation coefficients for associations between individual-level SES characteristics and census tract- and county-level SES characteristics, Mortality Disparities in American Communities study

From: Comparisons of individual- and area-level socioeconomic status as proxies for individual-level measures: evidence from the Mortality Disparities in American Communities study

Individual-level characteristic Census tract-level characteristic County-level characteristic
r r
Household income   
 Above US median 0.232 0.157
Poverty level   
 ≤ 100% FPL 0.122 0.067
Education   
 Has high school degree 0.158 0.096
 Has college degree 0.225 0.150
Employment/occupation   
 Is unemployeda 0.048 0.028
 Employed in blue-collar industryb 0.070 0.032
Other characteristics   
 Owns home 0.230 0.119
 Foreign born 0.263 0.245
  1. For household income, education, and owns home, having a value of 1 was considered low risk for health outcomes, while having a value of 0 was considered high risk; in contrast, for poverty, employment/occupation, and foreign born, having a value of 1 was considered high risk, while having a value of 0 was considered low risk. All p < .0001
  2. US United States, FPL federal poverty level
  3. aUnemployment was measured among participants who reported being in the workforce (e.g., excluding retirees)
  4. bEmployment in a blue-collar industry was measured among participants who reported being employed (i.e., excluding unemployed participants)