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Table 2 Individual characteristics associated with prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline

From: Impact of 2017 ACC/AHA guideline on prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and determinants of hypertension: a population-based cross-sectional study in southwest of Iran

Determinants of hypertension Prevalence Awareness Treatment Control
OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a
Age group
 <25 1 1 1 1
 25–34 1.09 (0.97–1.22) 1.44 (0.74–2.83) 0.83 (0.16–4.41) 1.45 (0.21–10.06)
 35–44 1.45 (1.291.62) 4.96 (2.639.48) 1.07 (0.22–5.16) 0.41 )0.07–2.45)
 45–54 2.64 (2.362.96) 14.3 (15.253.9) 1.4 (0.29–6.50) 0.31 (0.05–1.83)
 55–64 4.47 (3.985.03) 28.45 (15.253.9) 1.74 (0.37–8.23) 0.24 )0.04–1.41)
 =65 7.29 (5.0210.58) 51.2 (24.8105.9) 1.22 (0.23–6.14) 0.11 (0.01–1.05)
Gender
 Male 1 1 1 1
 Female 0.59 (0.560.62) 2.22 (2.012.46) 1.16 (0.96–1.42) 1.22 (0.86–1.74)
Marital status
 Single 1 1 1 1
 Married 0.90 (0.830.98) 2.02 (1.492.76) 1.14 (0.59–2.21) 0.73 (0.27–1.95)
 Divorced 0.94 (0.74–1.2) 1.85 (1.093.15) 0.34 (0.09–1.32) 1.28 (0.14–12.12)
 Widowed 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 2.24 (1.593.19) 1.33 (0.66–2.69) 0.58 (0.201.70)
Socioeconomic status
 Q1 1 1 1 1
 Q2 1.00 (0.931.07) 1.06 (0.931.20) 0.97 (0.771.22) 1.22 (0.801.85)
 Q3 0.88 (0.83–0.95) 1.07 (0.951.23) 1.03 (0.811.30) 1.16 (0.761.75)
 Q4 0.83 (0.77–0.89) 1.11 (0.981.27) 0.89 (0.701.13) 1.37 (0.892.11)
Education (year study)
 Illiterate (<1) 1 1 1 1
 Elementary school (15) 0.85 (0.790.92) 0.84 (0.74–0.95) 1.09 (0.881.35) 1.07 (0.721.60)
 Guidance school (68) 0.74 (0.680.81) 1.04 (0.891.21) 1.09 (0.831.44) 1.59 (0.992.58)
 High school (912) 0.73 (0.680.79) 0.87 (0.76–0.99) 1.36 (1.06–1.74) 1.34 (0.872.07)
 Universities (>12) 0.66 (0.600.73) 1.00 (0.821.22) 1.55 (1.06–2.25) 1.44 (0.772.70)
Ethnicity
 Fars 1 1 1 1
 Arab 1.18 (1.10–1.26) 1.10 (0.981.24) 0.24 (0.19–0.30) 0.29 (0.19–0.46)
 Bakhtiary 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 1.07 (0.931.23) 0.75 (0.59–0.96) 0.71)0.481.04)
 Lor 0.99 (0.901.09) 0.96 (0.811.15) 1.53 (1.15–2.04) 0.67 (0.441.02)
 Others 0.74 (0.56–0.99) 0.94 (0.531.69) 0.09 (0.01–0.66) Not enough
BMI
 Normal (18.6–25) 1 1 1 1
 Underweight (≤18.5) 0.65 (0.55–0.78) 0.59 (0.311.14) 1.35 (0.394.73) 1.64 (0.347.90)
 Overweight (25.1–30) 1.46 (1.37–1.55) 1.57 (1.37–1.80) 0.86 (0.661.11) 0.68 )0.451.04)
 Obese (>30) 2.15 (2.01–2.29) 2.09 (1.82–2.39) 0.88 (0.681.14) 0.49 (0.33–0.75)
Waist-hip ratio (WHR)
 WHR<0.85 1 1 1 1
 0.85≤ WHR <0.9 1.23 (1.14–1.33) 1.24 (1.04–1.48) 0.84 (0.591.19) 1.23 )0.702.17)
 0.90≤ WHR <0.95 1.43 (1.33–1.54) 1.44 (1.21–1.70) 0.91 (0.661.24) 0.83 (0.491.39)
 WHR ≥0.95 1.58 (1.46–1.70) 1.75 (1.49–2.06) 0.88 (0.651.18) 0.86 (0.531.42)
Physical activity
 Insufficient (MET<600/week) 1 1 1 1
 Sufficient (MET ≥ 600/week) 0.85 (0.80–0.91) 0.83 (0.74–0.92) 1.12 (0.911.37) 0.98 (0.671.43)
Smoking
 No 1 1 1 1
 Current 0.80 (0.72–0.88) 1.04 (0.851.28) 0.58 (0.37–0.89) 2.51 (1.23–5.10)
 Former 0.96 (0.841.11) 1.21 (0.981.51) 0.66 (0.4301.00) 1.67 )0.783.54)
Water pipe (hookah)
 No 1 1 1 1
 Current 1.15 (1.01–1.31) 0.92 (0.661.26) 1.52 (0.852.70) 0.54 (0.171.68)
 Former 1.24 (1.02–1.51) 1.25 (0.851.86) 1.19 (0.602.36) 1.12 (0.383.31)
Family history BP
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.35 (1.28–1.42) 2.37 (2.16–2.61) 1.09 (0.921.29) 1.07 (0.791.45)
History of DLP
 No 1 1 1  
 Yes 1.10 (1.04–1.15) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 1.41 (1.19–1.68) 1.15 (0.841.58)
History of DM
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.50 (1.40–1.61) 2.04 (1.85–2.25) 0.94 (0.791.11) 0.81 (0.591.10)
History of CVD
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.45 (1.30–1.63) 4.23 (3.66–4.88) 1.16 (0.951.41) 1.57 (1.13–2.20)
  1. The economic status was defined based on the wealth index, which was calculated by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) with household’s ownership of selected assets. Physical activity was estimated by metabolic equivalent of task (MET) category, which was calculated based on the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) guideline. Dyslipidemia was defined as either serum total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <35 mg/dL, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL or use of lipid-lowering medication. Diabetes Mellitus was defined as fasting plasma glucose levels (FBS) > 126 mg/dL, previously diagnosed DM, or current intake of antidiabetic agents. Cardiovascular diseases was defined if the participant reported any history of myocardial infarction, angiography, or any other related heart diseases. Bold values indicate statistical significance
  2. JNC8 eighth report of the Joint National Committee, ACC/AHA 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent of task, DLP dyslipidemia, DM diabetes mellitus, CVD cardiovascular diseases, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Q quartile
  3. aOdds ratios were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and physical activity