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Table 2 Average cross validation error for single hold-out strata in all-cause, pneumonia- and injury-specific mortality by age in China, 1996–2015

From: Adapting and validating the log quadratic model to derive under-five age- and cause-specific mortality (U5ACSM): a preliminary analysis

Age Absolute error in \(_{x}q_{0}\) per 1000 livebirths xq0 (range)
Log quadratic with k =0 Log quadratic with estimated k Standard\(^{\ddagger }\)
All cause\(^{\dagger }\)
 0–6 days (\(_{6d}q_{0}\)) 1.92 1.72 6.47 1.3–29.7
 0–27 days (\(_{27d}q_{0}\)) 1.99 0.00 0.00 1.9–38.0
 0–5 months (\(_{5mo}q_{0}\)) 1.03 0.68 2.68 2.6–55.3
 0–11 months (\(_{11mo}q_{0}\)) 0.75 0.81 3.21 2.9–62.4
 0–23 months (\(_{23mo}q_{0}\)) 0.43 0.60 3.00 3.2–68.4
 0–59 months (\(_{59mo}q_{0}\)) 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.6–76.7
Pneumonia-specific*
 0–6 days (\(_{6d}q_{0,c}\)) 0.65 0.50 0.43 0.0–3.5
 0–27 days (\(_{27d}q_{0,c}\)) 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.0–6.9
 0–5 months (\(_{5mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.37 0.21 1.04 0.1–16.0
 0–11 months (\(_{11mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.26 0.20 1.21 0.1–20.0
 0–23 months (\(_{23mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.11 0.10 1.08 0.2–22.9
 0–59 months (\(_{59mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.2–24.0
Injury-specific**
 0–6 days (\(_{6d}q_{0,c}\)) 0.23 0.16 0.29 0.0–4.4
 0–27 days (\(_{27d}q_{0,c}\)) 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.0–4.7
 0–5 months (\(_{5mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.27 0.14 0.23 0.0–6.1
 0–11 months (\(_{11mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.19 0.16 0.17 0.0–6.5
 0–23 months (\(_{23mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.14 0.14 0.22 0.1–7.4
 0–59 months (\(_{59mo}q_{0,c}\)) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.3–11.9
  1. Error shown as average absolute difference between estimated and observed \(_{x}q_{0}\) and \(_{x}q_{0,c}\)
  2. \({\ddagger }\)Based on constant mortality daily/monthly rate across age within 0–27 days and 1–59 months
  3. \(\dagger\) \(k\) matched to all-cause neonatal mortality
  4. *k matched to pneumonia-specific neonatal mortality
  5. **k matched to injury-specific neonatal mortality