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  1. Content type: Research

    Surveillance systems often present data by means of summary measures, like age-standardised rates. In this study, we aimed at comparing information derived from commonly used measures of smoking with that pres...

    Authors: Bruno Federico, Giovanni Capelli, Giuseppe Costa, Johan P Mackenbach and Anton E Kunst

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:23

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  2. Content type: Research

    Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country...

    Authors: Gretchen A Stevens, Gitanjali M Singh, Yuan Lu, Goodarz Danaei, John K Lin, Mariel M Finucane, Adil N Bahalim, Russell K McIntire, Hialy R Gutierrez, Melanie Cowan, Christopher J Paciorek, Farshad Farzadfar, Leanne Riley and Majid Ezzati

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:22

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  3. Content type: Review

    To systematically review the methodology of general burden of disease studies. Three key questions were addressed: 1) what was the quality of the data, 2) which methodological choices were made to calculate di...

    Authors: Suzanne Polinder, Juanita A Haagsma, Claudia Stein and Arie H Havelaar

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:21

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  4. Content type: Research

    Self-reported height and weight are commonly collected at the population level; however, they can be subject to measurement error. The impact of this error on predicted risk, discrimination, and calibration of...

    Authors: Laura C Rosella, Paul Corey, Therese A Stukel, Cam Mustard, Jan Hux and Doug G Manuel

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:20

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  5. Content type: Research

    During 2010, a community-based, sentinel site prospective surveillance system measured mortality, acute malnutrition prevalence, and the coverage of a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) intervention in four sous-p...

    Authors: Grazia M Caleo, Aly Penda Sy, Serge Balandine, Jonathan Polonsky, Pedro Pablo Palma, Rebecca Freeman Grais and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:18

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  6. Content type: Research

    Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies...

    Authors: Maya N Mascarenhas, Hoiwan Cheung, Colin D Mathers and Gretchen A Stevens

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:17

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  7. Content type: Review

    A comprehensive revision of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is expected to be completed in 2012. This study utilizes a broad range of improved methods for assessing burden, including closer attention ...

    Authors: Alize J Ferrari, Sukanta Saha, John J McGrath, Rosana Norman, Amanda J Baxter, Theo Vos and Harvey A Whiteford

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:16

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  8. Content type: Research

    Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close...

    Authors: Corinna Koebnick, Ning Smith, Karl Huang, Mayra P Martinez, Heather A Clancy, Andrew E Williams and Lawrence H Kushi

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:15

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  9. Content type: Review

    This essay asks whether the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors (GBD) should be measured in terms of their consequences for health, as maintained by most of those who are attempting to measur...

    Authors: Daniel M Hausman

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:13

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  10. Content type: Research

    Income has been extensively studied and utilized as a determinant of health. There are several sources of income expressed as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, but there are no time series that are comp...

    Authors: Spencer L James, Paul Gubbins, Christopher JL Murray and Emmanuela Gakidou

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:12

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  11. Content type: Research

    Measured or modeled levels of outdoor air pollution are being used as proxies for individual exposure in a growing number of epidemiological studies. We studied the accuracy of such approaches, in comparison w...

    Authors: Emilie Stroh, Ralf Rittner, Anna Oudin, Jonas Ardö, Kristina Jakobsson, Jonas Björk and Håkan Tinnerberg

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:10

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  12. Content type: Research

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for injuries; however, international data on this burden are limited. This article presents new methods to quantify the burden of injuries attributable to alcohol con...

    Authors: Kevin D Shield, Gerrit Gmel, Jayadeep Patra and Jürgen Rehm

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:9

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  13. Content type: Review

    The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology...

    Authors: Andrew J Tatem, Susana Adamo, Nita Bharti, Clara R Burgert, Marcia Castro, Audrey Dorelien, Gunter Fink, Catherine Linard, Mendelsohn John, Livia Montana, Mark R Montgomery, Andrew Nelson, Abdisalan M Noor, Deepa Pindolia, Greg Yetman and Deborah Balk

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:8

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  14. Content type: Research

    The objectives of this study were to estimate life expectancy (LE) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) for Canadians with and without diabetes and to evaluate the impact of diabetes on population health...

    Authors: Lidia Loukine, Chris Waters, Bernard CK Choi and Joellyn Ellison

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:7

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  15. Content type: Research

    The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the esti...

    Authors: Tara Kehoe, Gerrit Gmel, Kevin D Shield, Gerhard Gmel and Jürgen Rehm

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:6

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  16. Content type: Research

    Foodborne diseases (FBD) comprise a large part of the global mortality burden, yet the true extent of their impact remains unknown. The present study utilizes multiple regression with the first attempt to use ...

    Authors: Laura A Hanson, Elizabeth A Zahn, Sommer R Wild, Dörte Döpfer, James Scott and Claudia Stein

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:5

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  17. Content type: Research

    Detailed cause of death data by age group and sex are critical to identify key public health issues and target interventions appropriately. In this study the quality of local routinely collected cause of death...

    Authors: Karen Carter, Sione Hufanga, Chalapati Rao, Sione Akauola, Alan D Lopez, Rasika Rampatige and Richard Taylor

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:4

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  18. Content type: Research

    Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality consistently point to higher death rates in lower socioeconomic groups. Yet how these between-group differences relate to the total variation in mortality ris...

    Authors: Alyson A van Raalte, Anton E Kunst, Olle Lundberg, Mall Leinsalu, Pekka Martikainen, Barbara Artnik, Patrick Deboosere, Irina Stirbu, Bogdan Wojtyniak and Johan P Mackenbach

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:3

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  19. Content type: Research

    Data on causes of death by age and sex are a critical input into health decision-making. Priority setting in public health should be informed not only by the current magnitude of health problems but by trends ...

    Authors: Kyle J Foreman, Rafael Lozano, Alan D Lopez and Christopher JL Murray

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2012 10:1

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  20. Content type: Research

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with low socioeconomic position (SEP) in high-income countries. Despite the important role of SEP in the development of many diseases, no socioeconomic indicator was included in t...

    Authors: Emilie E Agardh, Anna Sidorchuk, Johan Hallqvist, Rickard Ljung, Stefan Peterson, Tahereh Moradi and Peter Allebeck

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:60

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  21. Content type: Research

    Public health surveillance is often concerned with the analysis of health outcomes over small areas. Funnel plots have been proposed as a useful tool for assessing and visualizing surveillance data, but their ...

    Authors: Douglas C Dover and Donald P Schopflocher

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:58

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  22. Content type: Research

    Nutrition and mortality surveys are the main tools whereby evidence on the health status of populations affected by disasters and armed conflict is quantified and monitored over time. Several reviews have cons...

    Authors: Claudine Prudhon, Xavier de Radiguès, Nancy Dale and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:57

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  23. Content type: Research

    No recent national studies have provided incidence data for obesity, nor have they examined the association between incidence and selected risk factors. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence of...

    Authors: Liping Pan, David S Freedman, Cathleen Gillespie, Sohyun Park and Bettylou Sherry

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:56

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  24. Content type: Research

    Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total choles...

    Authors: Farshad Farzadfar, Goodarz Danaei, Hengameh Namdaritabar, Julie Knoll Rajaratnam, Jacob R Marcus, Ardeshir Khosravi, Siamak Alikhani, Christopher JL Murray and Majid Ezzati

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:55

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  25. Content type: Research

    Appalachia is a region of the United States noted for the poverty and poor health outcomes of its residents. Residents of the poorest Appalachian counties have a high prevalence of diabetes and risk factors (o...

    Authors: Lawrence Barker, Robert Gerzoff, Richard Crespo and Molly Shrewsberry

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:54

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  26. Content type: Research

    Monitoring the time course of mortality by cause is a key public health issue. However, several mortality data production changes may affect cause-specific time trends, thus altering the interpretation. This p...

    Authors: Grégoire Rey, Albertine Aouba, Gérard Pavillon, Rasmus Hoffmann, Iris Plug, Ragnar Westerling, Eric Jougla and Johan Mackenbach

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:52

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  27. Content type: Research

    The high prevalence of chronic diseases in Western countries implies that the presence of multiple chronic diseases within one person is common. Especially at older ages, when the likelihood of having a chroni...

    Authors: Pieter H van Baal, Peter M Engelfriet, Hendriek C Boshuizen, Jan van de Kassteele, Francois G Schellevis and Rudolf T Hoogenveen

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:51

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  28. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy (VA) is a widely used method for analyzing cause of death in absence of vital registration systems. We adapted the InterVA method to extrapolate causes of death for stillbirths and neonatal deat...

    Authors: Stefania Vergnano, Edward Fottrell, David Osrin, Peter N Kazembe, Charles Mwansambo, Dharma S Manandhar, Stephan P Munjanja, Peter Byass, Sonia Lewycka and Anthony Costello

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:48

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  29. Content type: Research

    InterVA is a widely disseminated tool for cause of death attribution using information from verbal autopsies. Several studies have attempted to validate the concordance and accuracy of the tool, but the main l...

    Authors: Rafael Lozano, Michael K Freeman, Spencer L James, Benjamin Campbell, Alan D Lopez, Abraham D Flaxman and Christopher JL Murray

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:50

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  30. Content type: Research

    Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized i...

    Authors: Karin Källander, Daniel Kadobera, Thomas N Williams, Rikke Thoft Nielsen, Lucy Yevoo, Aloysius Mutebi, Jonas Akpakli, Clement Narh, Margaret Gyapong, Alberta Amu and Peter Waiswa

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:44

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  31. Content type: Research

    Because of a physician shortage in many low-income countries, the use of nonphysicians to classify perinatal mortality (stillbirth and early neonatal death) using verbal autopsy could be useful.

    Authors: Cyril Engmann, John Ditekemena, Imtiaz Jehan, Ana Garces, Mutinta Phiri, Vanessa Thorsten, Manolo Mazariegos, Elwyn Chomba, Omrana Pasha, Antoinette Tshefu, Elizabeth M McClure, Dennis Wallace, Robert L Goldenberg, Waldemar A Carlo, Linda L Wright and Carl Bose

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:42

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  32. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy (VA) can be used to describe leading causes of death in countries like Zambia where vital events registration does not produce usable data. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasib...

    Authors: Sheila S Mudenda, Stanley Kamocha, Robert Mswia, Martha Conkling, Palver Sikanyiti, Dara Potter, William C Mayaka and Melissa A Marx

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:40

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  33. Content type: Research

    The most common method for determining cause of death is certification by physicians based either on available medical records, or where such data are not available, through verbal autopsy (VA). The physician-...

    Authors: Evasius Bauni, Carolyne Ndila, George Mochamah, Gideon Nyutu, Lena Matata, Charles Ondieki, Barbara Mambo, Maureen Mutinda, Benjamin Tsofa, Eric Maitha, Anthony Etyang and Thomas N Williams

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:49

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  34. Content type: Research

    The advent of the HIV pandemic and the more recent prevention and therapeutic interventions have resulted in extensive and rapid changes in cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is de...

    Authors: Abraham J Herbst, Tshepiso Mafojane and Marie-Louise Newell

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:47

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  35. Content type: Review

    "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to es...

    Authors: Henry D Kalter, Rene Salgado, Marzio Babille, Alain K Koffi and Robert E Black

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:45

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  36. Content type: Research

    Trends in the causes of child mortality serve as important global health information to guide efforts to improve child survival. With child mortality declining in Bangladesh, the distribution of causes of deat...

    Authors: Li Liu, Qingfeng Li, Rose A Lee, Ingrid K Friberg, Jamie Perin, Neff Walker and Robert E Black

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:43

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  37. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy (VA) has often been used for point estimates of cause-specific mortality, but seldom to characterize long-term changes in epidemic patterns. Monitoring emerging causes of death involves practiti...

    Authors: Peter Byass, Kathleen Kahn, Edward Fottrell, Paul Mee, Mark A Collinson and Stephen M Tollman

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:46

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  38. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy (VA) is a widely used tool to assign probable cause of death in areas with inadequate vital registration systems. Its uses in priority setting and health planning are well documented in sub-Saha...

    Authors: Mathew A Mwanyangala, Honorathy M Urassa, Jensen C Rutashobya, Chrisostom C Mahutanga, Angelina M Lutambi, Deodatus V Maliti, Honorati M Masanja, Salim K Abdulla and Rose N Lema

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:41

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  39. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches...

    Authors: Christopher JL Murray, Alan D Lopez, Robert Black, Ramesh Ahuja, Said Mohd Ali, Abdullah Baqui, Lalit Dandona, Emily Dantzer, Vinita Das, Usha Dhingra, Arup Dutta, Wafaie Fawzi, Abraham D Flaxman, Sara Gómez, Bernardo Hernández, Rohina Joshi…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:27

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  40. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy is important for detecting causes of death including HIV in areas with inadequate vital registration systems. Before antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, a verbal autopsy study in rural Ug...

    Authors: Billy N Mayanja, Kathy Baisley, Norah Nalweyiso, Freddie M Kibengo, Joseph O Mugisha, Lieve Van der Paal, Dermot Maher and Pontiano Kaleebu

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:36

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  41. Content type: Research

    Through application of the verbal autopsy (VA) approach, trained fieldworkers collect information about the probable cause of death (COD) by using a standardized questionnaire to interview family members who w...

    Authors: Maurice Yé, Eric Diboulo, Louis Niamba, Ali Sié, Boubacar Coulibaly, Cheik Bagagnan, Jonas Dembélé and Heribert Ramroth

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:34

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  42. Content type: Research

    In 2004, the media repeatedly reported water pollution and "cancer villages" along the Huai River in China. Due to the lack of death records for more than 30 years, a retrospective survey of causes of death us...

    Authors: Xia Wan, Maigeng Zhou, Zhuang Tao, Ding Ding and Gonghuan Yang

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:37

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  43. Content type: Research

    Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL) for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) ...

    Authors: Abraham D Flaxman, Alireza Vahdatpour, Spencer L James, Jeanette K Birnbaum and Christopher JL Murray

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:35

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  44. Content type: Research

    The process of data collection and the methods used to assign the cause of death vary significantly among different verbal autopsy protocols, but there are few data to describe the consequences of the choices ...

    Authors: Rohina Joshi, Devarsetty Praveen, Clara Chow and Bruce Neal

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2011 9:33

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