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Table 2 Comorbidity factors from five population surveys. Comorbidity factors for cumulative cause groups by age and sex. The comorbidity factor f is computed using equation (6) as the prevalence of persons reporting diseases in the two cause groups (p 1+2 ) divided by the two prevalences p 1 and p 2 for each cause group considered independently: f = p 1+2 /(p 1 × p 2 )

From: Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calculation of healthy life expectancy

   Males Females
Survey Combinations < 30 30–44 45–59 60 –74 75+ < 30 30–44 45–59 60–74 75+
AUSNHS Cardiovascular + respiratory 114.77 43.84 7.93 4.05 7.36 48.36 16.14 9.72 6.03 6.80
  Previous + musculoskeletal 5.91 8.73 5.12 2.84 4.27 5.77 5.68 4.89 3.84 4.31
  Previous + other 3.87 2.58 1.72 1.40 1.72 3.87 2.64 1.78 1.38 1.65
  Previous + nervous 4.88 3.47 2.25 1.64 2.13 4.72 3.28 1.94 1.47 1.92
  Previous + mental 2.93 2.01 1.43 1.20 1.45 2.87 1.98 1.47 1.25 1.43
AUS NMHS Cardiovascular + respiratory -- -- 9.66 3.76 4.05 41.99 35.78 14.62 6.12 4.53
  Previous + musculoskeletal 37.19 33.12 8.47 3.47 3.52 27.62 21.66 11.54 5.13 4.21
  Previous + other 23.44 15.85 4.03 2.07 2.21 19.34 10.31 3.56 1.91 1.89
  Previous + mental 4.76 4.83 2.29 1.44 1.73 4.25 3.93 2.09 1.37 1.46
US NHIS Cardiovascular + respiratory 9.97 4.10 1.80 2.59 1.77 8.14 4.12 2.20 1.42 2.37
  Previous + musculoskeletal 7.07 3.55 1.64 2.38 1.56 4.78 3.07 1.89 1.31 2.24
  Previous + other 2.00 2.00 1.56 1.22 1.22 1.92 1.92 1.57 1.27 1.27
  Previous + mental 1.84 1.84 1.46 1.15 1.15 1.65 1.65 1.39 1.17 1.17
Denmark Cardiovascular + respiratory 32.71 32.71 14.05 6.04 6.04 41.56 41.56 15.63 5.87 5.87
  Previous + musculoskeletal 13.49 13.49 5.76 2.46 2.46 14.38 14.38 7.43 3.84 3.84
  Previous + other 4.15 4.15 2.61 1.64 1.64 4.35 4.35 2.66 1.63 1.63
  Previous + nervous 4.08 4.08 2.63 1.69 1.69 4.46 4.46 2.73 1.67 1.67
  Previous + mental 3.12 3.12 2.09 1.40 1.40 3.20 3.20 2.05 1.32 1.32
Belgium Cardiovascular + respiratory 33.02 33.02 11.66 4.12 4.12 43.21 43.21 15.74 5.73 5.73
  Previous + musculoskeletal 11.06 11.06 5.28 2.52 2.52 11.12 11.12 6.31 3.58 3.58
  Previous + mental 5.90 5.90 3.27 1.81 1.81 5.72 5.72 3.48 2.12 2.12