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Table 2 Differentials in maternal mortality ratio, South Africa 2001 census.

From: Maternal mortality in South Africa in 2001: From demographic census to epidemiological investigation

     95% Confidence interval  
Variable Category Maternal deaths (N) MMR, per 100,000 live births Min Max Relative risk
Total Total 508 551 505 601  
Residence Urban 249 505 446 572 1.00
  Rural 259 604 535 682 1.20
Province Kwazulu Natal 152 772 659 905 3.15
  North-West 57 751 579 974 3.07
  Eastern Cape 88 712 578 877 2.91
  Free State 34 654 467 915 2.67
  Mpumalanga 37 519 376 716 2.12
  Gauteng 7 415 198 871 1.69
  Northern Cape 70 395 313 499 1.61
  Limpopo 41 347 256 471 1.42
  Western Cape 22 245 161 372 1.00
Race Black/African 478 614 561 672 9.16
  Coloured 24 284 190 424 4.24
  Indian/Asian 3 200 65 620 2.99
  White/European 3 67 22 208 1.00
Language IsiZulu 183 759 657 877 7.23
  IsiXhosa 114 683 568 821 6.50
  SeSotho 47 642 482 854 6.11
  SeTswana 50 634 481 837 6.04
  IsiNdebele 8 541 271 1082 5.15
  XiTsonga 22 449 296 682 4.28
  SePedi 39 426 311 583 4.06
  SiSwati 12 416 236 733 3.96
  TshiVenda 2 81 20 324 0.77
  Afrikaans 24 236 158 352 2.25
  English 5 105 44 252 1.00
Education 0–4 years 52 899 685 1180 2.35
  5–8 years 121 753 630 900 1.97
  9–11 years 183 598 517 691 1.57
  12+ years 152 382 326 448 1.00
Income None declared 142 650 551 766 3.13
  < 2400 Rd 181 587 507 679 2.82
  2400–4800 Rd 96 674 552 823 3.24
  4800–9600 Rd 52 482 367 633 2.32
  9600–28800 Rd 25 286 193 423 1.38
  > 28800 Rd 12 208 118 366 1.00
Wealth index (nb items)      
  0 12 899 511 1583 1.20
  1 23 524 348 789 0.70
  2 37 536 388 740 0.71
  3 38 497 362 683 0.66
  4 51 672 511 884 0.90
  5 46 651 488 869 0.87
  6 (ref.) 49 750 567 992 1.00
  7 43 695 515 937 0.93
  8 40 657 482 896 0.88
  9 41 661 487 898 0.88
  10 29 477 331 686 0.64
  11 29 452 314 650 0.60
  12 36 505 364 700 0.67
  13 23 353 235 531 0.47
  14 10 249 134 463 0.33
  15 1 47 7 334 0.06