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Table 4 Risk factors of maternal mortality at the household and provincial level, South Africa, 2001 (from linear logistic regression)

From: Maternal mortality in South Africa in 2001: From demographic census to epidemiological investigation

Household characteristics Beta Standard error Net effect Relative risk P-value Signif.
Provincial level       
HIV prevalence 0.0173 0.0082 689 1.15 0.036 *
Violence death rate 0.0393 0.0088 795 1.33 0.000 *
Home delivery -0.0072 0.0085 566 0.95 0.399  
Household level       
Level of education -0.0588 0.0131 497 0.83 0.000 *
Wealth distance -0.0638 0.0228 517 0.86 0.005 *
Urban 0.2103 0.0993 738 1.23 0.034 *
Black/African (ref)    599 1.00 0.000 *
Coloured -0.3925 0.2379 405 0.68 0.099  
Indian -0.9613 0.5872 230 0.38 0.102  
White -1.6767 0.5858 113 0.19 0.004 *
Constant -5.9427 0.3092 599