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Table 4 Comparison of maternal underlying cause reported by physician consensus (PC) to underlying cause reported by community coordinator (CC) for select causes of stillbirth (n = 134)

From: Classifying perinatal mortality using verbal autopsy: is there a role for nonphysicians?

Underlying COD, as determined by CC Underlying COD, as determined by PC (reference standard) Measures2  
  Identified as COD Not identified as COD SE SP PPV NPV CSMFPC (95% CI) 1-CSMFPC CSMFCC (95% CI) 1-CSMFCC RD (95% CI) Kappa (95% CI)
Antepartum hemorrhage 13 121 0.62 0.98 0.80 0.96 0.10 (0.04, 0.15) 0.90 0.07 (0.03, 0.12) 0.93 0.23 (0.00,0.57) 0.67 (0.44,0.9)
COD 8 (61.5) 2 (1.7)           
Not COD 5 (38.5) 119 (98.3)           
Maternal infection 50 84 0.64 0.94 0.86 0.81 0.37 (0.25, 0.50) 0.63 0.28 (0.17, 0.38) 0.72 0.26 (0.87,0.42) 0.62 (0.47,0.75)
COD 32 (64.0) 5 (6.0)           
Not COD 18 (36.0) 79 (94.0)           
Prematurity 9 125 0.44 0.86 0.19 0.96 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) 0.93 0.16 (0.08, 0.23) 0.84 1.33 (0.24,4.40) 0.19 (-0.02,0.4)
COD 4 (44.4) 17 (13.6)           
Not COD 5 (55.6) 108 (86.4)           
Maternal accident 7 127 0.57 0.99 0.80 0.98 0.05 (0.01, 0.09) 0.95 0.04 (0.00, 0.07) 0.96 0.29 (0.00,0.80) 0.65 (0.33,0.97)
COD 4 (57.1) 1 (0.8)           
Not COD 3 (42.9) 126 (99.2)           
Prolonged labor 15 119 0.53 0.98 0.80 0.94 0.11 (0.05, 0.17) 0.89 0.07 (0.03, 0.12) 0.93 0.33 (0.00,0.64) 0.6 (0.37,0.84)
COD 8 (53.3) 2 (1.7)           
Not COD 7 (46.7) 117 (98.3)           
Cord prolapse/complication 8 126 0.50 0.96 0.44 0.97 0.06 (0.02, 0.10) 0.94 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) 0.93 0.13 (0.00,1.67) 0.43 (0.13,0.74)
COD 4 (50.0) 5 (4.0)           
Not COD 4 (50.0) 121 (96.0)           
Malpresentation 4 130 0.50 0.98 0.40 0.98 0.03 (0.00, 0.06) 0.97 0.04 (0.00, 0.07) 0.96 0.25 (0.00,3.00) 0.42 (0.01,0.84)
COD 2 (50.0) 3 (2.3)           
Not COD 2 (50.0) 127 (97.7)           
Unknown/no cause 16 118 0.69 0.86 0.41 0.95 0.12 (0.06, 0.18) 0.88 0.20 (0.12, 0.29) 0.80 0.69 (0.12,1.83) 0.43 (0.23,0.62)
COD 11 (68.8) 16 (13.6)           
Not COD 5 (31.3) 102 (86.4)           
Other1 12 122 0.25 0.94 0.30 0.93 0.09 (0.04, 0.14) 0.91 0.07 (0.03, 0.12) 0.93 0.17 (0.00,0.82) 0.21 0.05,0.47)
COD 3 (25.0) 7 (5.7)           
Not COD 9 (75.0) 115 (94.3)           
  1. 1 Other includes multiple delivery, hypertension/eclampsia, post-term delivery, and other causes.
  2. 2 Definitions of measures are provided in the methods section. Measures are as follows: sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) of physician consensus (PC) and community coordinator (CC), and absolute relative difference of CSMF (RD). RD was calculated using the actual numeric values rather than the rounded CSMFs reported in the table.