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Table 1 Cluster characteristics

From: A quantitative evidence base for population health: applying utilization-based cluster analysis to segment a patient population

  Cluster Population mean
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Care utilization
 Number of non-elective inpatient admissions per year, mean 0.01a 0.01b 0.34a 0.00a 0.01b 0.44a 0.00a 0.45a 0.08
 Number of elective inpatient admissions per year, mean 0.01a 0.01a 0.07a 0.13a 0.02a 0.58a 0.38a 0.34a 0.13
 Number of outpatient attendances per year, mean 0.16b 0.09b 1.90b 1.65b 0.29a 5.58a 3.60a 3.99a 1.43
 Number of GP practice visits per year, mean 0.38a 2.13a 5.54a 3.40a 6.40a 13.24a 10.06b 12.14b 5.07
 Number of GP home visits per year, mean 0.00a 0.01a 0.02b 0.01a 0.03b 0.06a 0.05a 1.94a 0.06
 Number of prescriptions per year, mean 0.17a 1.66a 7.40a 3.04a 21.21a 55.62a 39.78a 86.96a 15.93
Patient characteristics
 Age at end of study period, mean 36.0a 34.4a 37.8a 39.1a 53.0a 61.4a 62.1a 77.1a 45.1
 Proportion in residential care, % 0.0a 0.0a 1.0a 0.0a 1.0a 2.0a 2.0a 16.0a 1.0
 Predicted risk of an emergency admission in 2012, % 2.7b 2.8b 5.3a 3.2a 4.3a 16.2a 6.7a 22.3a 5.2
 Townsend Deprivation Index, %
  1 (affluent) 24.1b 26.7a 21.7c 25.2b 25.8b 20.9c 24.1b 21.1c 24.7
  2 22.0c 22.9 21.0c 23.7 23.8 22.0 24.1 22.4 23.0
  3 21.1 20.9 20.8 20.7 20.9 21.2 21.6 22.2 21.0
  4 19.3 18.1 20.9c 18.7 18.3 21.0c 18.6 20.9 19.0
  5 (deprived) 13.4b 11.3 15.7
b
11.7 11.3 14.9c 11.6 13.4c 12.4
Disease prevalence
 Number of long-term conditions, mean 0.0a 0.1a 0.3a 0.1a 0.3a 1.3a 0.7a 1.7a 0.3
 Prevalence of AMI, % 0.0c 0.0c 1.7b 0.0c 0.5a 13.3b 1.9b 14.0b 1.7
 Prevalence of asthma, % 0.4a 3.9a 12.0a 5.6a 15.0a 23.6a 16.8a 20.6a 9.6
 Prevalence of cancer, % 0.1b 0.2b 1.7a 2.8a 1.0a 14.7b 10.9a 14.0b 3.5
 Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, % 0.0c 0.1c 2.1a 0.1c 0.7a 8.9a 1.5a 15.9a 1.5
 Prevalence of congestive heart failure, % 0.0c 0.0c 0.5a 0.0c 0.2a 6.8a 0.8a 11.9a 0.9
 Prevalence of COPD, % 0.1b 0.1b 1.3a 0.4a 0.9a 10.4a 3.1a 15.1a 1.8
 Prevalence of dementia, % 0.0b 0.0b 0.3b 0.0a 0.2b 1.7a 0.6a 10.5a 0.5
 Prevalence of diabetes, % 0.0a 0.3a 2.5a 0.6a 8.4a 19.4b 15.4a 20.8b 5.6
 Prevalence of HIV/AIDS, % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 Prevalence of learning disabilities, % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2b 0.1 0.3b 0.0
 Prevalence of liver disease, % 0.0c 0.0b 0.2b 0.1b 0.0c 1.0a 0.4c 0.6b 0.2
 Prevalence of mental health conditions, % 0.0c 0.0c 0.7a 0.1 0.1b 1.9b 0.4a 1.8b 0.3
 Prevalence of paraplegia, % 0.0c 0.0b 0.2b 0.0c 0.0b 1.3a 0.1b 3.1a 0.2
 Prevalence of peptic ulcer, % 0.0b 0.0b 0.5a 0.1b 0.2b 2.8b 0.9a 2.7b 0.5
 Prevalence of peripheral vascular disease, % 0.0b 0.0b 0.6a 0.1a 0.3a 5.4a 1.7a 7.5a 0.9
 Prevalence of renal disease, % 0.0a 0.2a 1.3a 0.6a 4.0a 13.9a 8.5a 24.3a 3.5
 Prevalence of rheumatic disease, % 0.0a 0.1a 0.6b 0.3a 0.7b 5.4a 3.8a 6.6a 1.2
  1. Legend: a: Significantly different from all 7 other clusters; b: Significantly different from 6 other clusters; c: Significantly different from 5 other clusters; All at 0.05/7 = 0.007 significance level (Bonferroni adjustment). All variables are significantly different across clusters at a <0.000 significance level using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, or Chi Square tests