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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Assessment of pre-injury health-related quality of life: a systematic review

Author, year, country, design Type of injury Setting Study sample Instrument Assessment Focus of pre-injury and follow-up assessments Analysis
Cohort Inclusion /Exclusion
N (response); age; % men; severity
Method
Timing
Comparison groups
Alghnam, 2014, US [18] A Motor vehicle injury vs no MVC Medical expenditure panel survey (MEPS) 18 + y
N = 993; MVC: 18-45y 68%; 46%
No MVC: 18-45y 51%; 47%
SF-12 Questionnaires
Pre: prospective
Post: max 9 m
NR MVC vs no MVC
Andrew, 2012, Australia [26] A Orthopedic injury (sport/recreation) Trauma services/Hospital (VOTOR) 18-75y
N = 317 (73%); 40y (13); 73%
ISS > 15 19%
SF-36 (v2) Telephone interviews
Pre: 1-2w
Post: 12 m
Pre: 4w before injury
Post: NR
Type of sport/recreation
Beaupre, 2012, Canada [30] A Hip fracture Nursing home facilities 65 + y; Previously ambulatory nursing home residents
N = 60 (65%); 87y (8), 62–104; 30%
EQ-5D (Telephone) Interviews
Pre: NR
Post: 3 m, 6 m, 12 m
Pre: just before injury
Post: NR
Survival status
Brussoni, 2013, Canada [31] D General injury Pediatric ED/hospital 0-16y
N = 232 (67%); 0-4y 33%, 5-16y 67%; 61% boys
EQ-5D (3 L, VAS) Questionnaires (child/proxy) Pre: 1d before injury
Post: NR
Length of hospital stay
Buecking, 2014, Germany [35] A Hip fracture (Proximal femoral) Hospital/Surgical fracture treatment >60y; No ISS ≥ 16; No malignancy-related fractures
N = 350 (65%); 81y (8), 60–99; 73%
EQ-5D (3 L, VAS)
German norms
Questionnaires
Pre: at admission
Post: at discharge
Pre: before injury
Post: current status
 
Busse, 2012, Canada [32] E Tibia fracture Multicenter (SPRINT) Operative fixation intramedullary nail
N = 1319; 39y (16); 74%
SF-36 Questionnaires
Pre: at the time of enrollment
Post: 2w, 12 m
Pre: before injury
Post: NR
 
Ding, 2006, US [19] A Extremity fracture (Long bone or pelvic) Pediatric hospital 5-15y, Hospitalized ≥1d; No TBI
N = 100 (85%); 10y (3); 66%; NISS: 8 (5)
PedsQL Telephone interviews
Pre: soon after injury (median 9d)
Post: 3 m, 12 m
Pre: before injury
Post: post-injury
Upper/lower extremity; HRQL domains
Dvorak, 2005, Canada [33] B,C Vertebral fracture (C1, Jefferson) Databases 18 + y; No neurological injury; Disruption of anterior and posterior atlantal arches
N = 34 (60%); 48y (21); 68%
SF-36
Canadian norms
Questionnaire (by mail/phone)
Not reported
Pre: before injury
Post: current status
Canadian norms
Fauerbach, 1999, US [20] A Burn injury Burn center Adults
N = 86; 42y (15); 78
SF-36 Questionnaire
Pre: first 73 h after admission
Post: 2 m after discharge
Pre: month before injury
Post: past month
Post Traumatic Distress (PTD) vs no PTD; HRQL domains; US norms
Gabbe, 2007, Australia [6] A Orthopedic injury Hospital (VOTOR) 18 + y; New orthopedic injury
N = 1839 (77%); 45y, 21–65; 60%
SF-12 Interviews/Questionnaires
Pre: in-hospital/soon after discharge
Post: NA
Pre: week before injury
Post: NA
Men vs women
Australian norms
Greenspan, 2002, US [21] A Gunshot injury Hospital 18-64y; <24 h after injury
N = 60 (38%); 30y (9); 92%
ISS 1–9 57%; MAIS 3 48%
SF-36 (Telephone) Interviews
Pre: in-hospital/soon after discharge
Post: 8 m after discharge
Pre: pre-injury status
Post: current status
HRQL domains;
UK norms
Griffin, 2015, UK [36] A Hip fracture Hospital 60 + y; operatively managed
N = 741 (83%); 80 + y 67%; 25%
EQ-5D (3 L) (Telephone) Interviews
No response: questionnaires (post)
Pre: in-hospital/soon after discharge
Post: 4w, 4 m, 12 m
Pre: pre-injury status
Post: NR
Age
Gross, 2012, Switzerland [44]A TBI vs no TBI ICU ≥2 AIS regions, ISS > 16; GCS < 14, AISH > 2
No secondarily admissions
N = 170 (65%); 40y (21); 75%
ISS 28 (8); GCS 11 (5)
EQ-5D (3 L, VAS)
German norms
SF-36 (v1)
Postal questionnaires
Pre & post: 2y
Pre: pre-injury status
Post: post-injury status
TBI vs non-TBI
Hagino, 2009, Japan [37]A Hip fracture
Vertebral fracture
Wrist fracture
Hospital Women; 45 + y; No malignancy-related fractures; Lower-energy; Minor trauma
N = 122; Hip 76 (10), 49–91; Vertebral 73 (10), 48–91; Wrist 69 (10), 49-88
EQ-5D
Japanese norms
Questionnaires
Pre: first visit/admission
Post: 2w, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m
Pre: period before injury
Post: NR
Hip vs vertebral vs wrist
Innocenti, 2015, Italy [43] A General injury ED-HDU N = 153 (51%); 54y (22); 67%
ISS 12 (9)
SF-12
Italian norms
Telephone interviews
Pre & post: 6 m after ED discharge
Pre: before injury
Post: current status
Change HRQL domains
Italian norms
Jaglal, 2000, Canada [34] E Hip fracture Hospital Living independently; No cognitive impairment
N = 43; 81y (8); 19%
SF-36 (Telephone) Interviews
Pre: in-hospital
Post: 6w, 6 m after injury
Pre: before injury
Post: NR
HRQL domains
Jimenez, 2013, US [22] A TBI Hospital (CHAI) <18y; discharged alive from ED
Hispanic or non-Hispanic white
N = 531 (73%); 0–9 50%; 65% boys; MAIS 1 46%
PedsQL (Spanish) (Telephone) Interviews
Pre: soon after injury (median 37d)
Post: 3 m, 12 m, 24 m, 36 m
Pre: period before injury
Post: NR
Hispanic vs
non-Hispanic white
Lyrtzis, 2012, Greece [41] A Ankle sprain (2nd degree) Not reported Injury at 1 limb; No previous ankle injury; No fracture; <24 h after injury; no analgesic
N = 78 (98%); 36y (13); 74%
SF-36 Questionnaires
Pre: day of injury
Post: 10d
Pre: before injury
Post: 10d since injury
HRQL domains
McGuine, 2014, US [23] A Knee injury Sports medicine center/clinic Women; 13-23y; Injury during regular fitness or sport activities
N = 255 (91%); 17y (2), 13–23; 0%
SF-12 (v2) Questionnaires
Pre: initial visit (median 12d)
Post: diagnosis, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m
Pre: 1w before injury
Post: since injury
US norms
Ottosson, 2007, Sweden [45] A Musculoskeletal injury ED 15 + y
N = 318 (39%); 39y (15); 46%
SF-36 Questionnaires
Pre: at inclusion
Post: 1 m, 6 m
Pre: week before injury
Post: NR
Swedish norms
Peterson, 2008, US [24] E Hip fracture Hospital
Hip fracture surgery
>65y; Not mentally impaired; Living independently
N = 105 (NR); alive – 79 (8); NR
SF-36 (v1) Questionnaires
Pre: NR
Post: 1stw after operation
Pre: 4w before injury
Post: NR
Survival status;
HRQL domains
Pieper, 2014, US [25]
Related: [60] A
TBI vs no TBI Pediatric ED (Self-selected sample) 5-17y; discharge <24 h
N = 40 mBTI, 40 no TBI
TBI: 12y (3); 80%; no TBI: 10y (3); 63%
PedsQL (4.0 Generic) (Telephone) Interviews
Pre: initial contact
Post: 1 m, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m
Pre: week before injury
Post: NR
mTBI vs no TBI vs no injury; Children vs parents (proxy); HRQL domains
Ponsford, 2011,
Australia [27] A
Related: [61]
TBI vs no TBI Hospital 18 + y; <24 h after injury
N = 123 (63%) mTBI, 100 (30%) no TBI
mTBI: 35y (13); 74%; no TBI: 35y (11); 64%
SF-36 Questionnaires
Pre: within 48 h after injury
Post: 1w, 3 m
Pre: before injury
Post: current, past 4w
mTBI vs no TBI
Pons-Villanueva, 2011, Spain [46] A Motor vehicle injury vs no MVC University graduates (SUN) N = 64 MVC, 3297 no MVC (91%)
40y; 38%
SF-36 Questionnaires
Pre: prospective
Post: 4y, 8y
NR MVC vs no MVC;
HRQL domains
Skoog, 2001, Sweden [40] Tibia shaft fracture Hospital No pathologic fractures or fractures adjacent to implant
N = 64; 45y (19), 14–93; 56%
SF-36 Interviews/Questionnaires
Pre: during hospitalization
Post: 4 m, mean 13 m
Pre: before injury
Post: not reported
Swedish norms
Sugeno, 2008, Japan [38] A Hip fracture Hospital No severe cognitive decline
N = 50 (44%); 77y (10); 20%
EQ-5D (3 L, VAS) Interviews
Pre: 1/2d after admission
Post: discharge, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m after admission
NR  
Tidermark, 2002, Sweden [39] A Hip fracture (Falls) ED 65 + y; Living independently
N = 90; 80y (7), 66–92; 37%
EQ-5D (3 L, VAS)
UK norms
Interviews/Questionnaires (post)
Pre: first days after injury
Post: 1w, 4 m, mean 17 m (2))
Pre: week before injury
Post: NR
Age (60–88); Gender; Fracture outcome; Survival status;
Swedish norms
Ulvik, 2008, Norway [42] A General injury Closed ICU (neurosurgery) >18y
N = 210 (92%); 39y (17), 18–83; 81%
ISS (median) 25; 4-54
EQ-5D Telephone interviews
Pre & post: 2-7y (median 4y)
Pre: before injury
Post: current status
 
Wasiak, 2014, Australia [28] A Burn injury Burn center 18 + y; TBSA > 10%
N = 99 (79%); 42y (2); 75%
SF-36 (v2) Questionnaires
Pre: not reported
Post: 12 m
NR Australian norms
Watson, 2005, Australia [29] A
Related: [7]
General injury Hospital 18-74y; No self-inflicted injury;
No neurological deficit
N = 221 (88%); 38y; 72%
SF-36 Interviews
Pre: in hospital / 1stw
Post: 6w, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m
Pre: previous week
Post: previous week
Age; Gender; Work status; Employment; Australian norms
Wilson, 2012, New Zealand [8] A
Related: [6264]
General injury Accident Compensation Corporation entitlement claims register 18-64y; No self-harm or sexual assault
N = 2.842; 18-34y 35%, 35-64y 47%; 61%
EQ-5D
New Zealand norms
Interviews
Pre: 3.2 m
Post: 4.6 m, 12.3 m
Pre: before injury
Post: current status
Recovery status;
New Zealand norms
  1. (Bold author names are studies of children; Studies in bold and italics prospectively measured pre-injury HRQL)
  2. Design: a Prospective cohort, b Retrospective cohort, c Cross-sectional, d Validation study, e Randomized controlled trial
  3. h hour, d day, w week, m month, y year, AIS abbreviated injury scale, ED emergency department, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, NR not reported, MVC injury due to motor-vehicle crash, Ortho orthopedic injury, TBI traumatic brain injury