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Table 3 Summary characteristics of the 21 studies with cost-effectiveness analyses for New Zealand in the period 1 January 2010 to 8 October 2017 (for the key interventions in each paper as shown in Table 2)

From: Can cost-effectiveness results be combined into a coherent league table? Case study from one high-income country

Study characteristic Number of studies % of all 21 studies
Key methods   
 Discount rate of 0% or not stated (mainly 1-year trials) 6 29
 Discount rate used includes 3.0% or 3.5% 12 57
 Discount rate of 5% or 10% 3 14
 Used QALYs 16* 76
 Used DALYs 4 19
 Used LYs 3* 14
 Time horizon was lifetime 10 48
 Time horizon was only 12 months 5 24
 Perspective included health system 18* 86
 Perspective included societal aspects 5* 24
  Productivity costs were considered 3 14
  Greenhouse gas emissions were considered 0 0
 Study fully funded by industry 1 5
 Study with only partial funding by industry 1 5
Disease/condition being primarily prevented or treated   
 Cardiovascular disease 5 24
 Cervical cancer 3 14
 Obesity 2 10
 Injuries 2 10
 Sleep disorders 2 10
 Other (all single disease/conditions) 7 33
Nature of the intervention   
 Primary prevention (completely avert disease) 8 38
 Secondary prevention/screening (slow/halt progression of disease) 6 29
 Treatment/disease management 7 33
 Includes universal interventions—i.e., whole population (even if just in scenario analyses) 4* 19
 Includes targeted interventions— i.e., one particular population group (even if just in scenario analyses) 19* 90
 Includes mandatory interventions (even if just in scenario analyses) 3* 14
 Includes voluntary interventions (even if just in scenario analyses) 20* 95
Results (as per the key results in Table 2)   
 Likely to be cost-saving 4 19
 Likely to be cost-effective (ICER < NZ$ 45,000 per QALY/DALY/LY) 15 71
 Not cost-effective 2 10
  1. *For these characteristics, some studies included multiple categories, e.g., using both QALYs and LYs
  2. **For the 11 studies not using a lifetime horizon the range was from 1 to 30 years, median = 2 years, mean = 9.6 years