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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of association between stillbirth and woman’s and baby’s and maternity care characteristics (FBH+ only, n = 14,991)

From: Stillbirth maternity care measurement and associated factors in population-based surveys: EN-INDEPTH study

  Crude odds ratio (95% CI) p value (Wald test) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value (Wald test)
Site
 Bandim 1.17 (0.94–1.47) < 0.001 1.17 (0.77–1.77) < 0.001
 Dabat 0.53 (0.38–0.73)   0.38 (0.22–0.66)  
 IgangaMayuge 0.47 (0.33–0.66)   0.19 (0.11–0.33)  
 Matlab 1.00 (base)   1.00 (base)  
 Kintampo 0.96 (0.77–1.20)   0.34 (0.21–0.54)  
Age-group (years)a
 15–24 1.00 (base) 0.020 1.00 (base) 0.206
 25–29 1.14 (0.89–1.45)   0.77 (0.55–1.07)  
 30–34 1.36 (1.06–1.75)   0.65 (0.44–0.95)  
 35–39 1.30 (0.99–1.71)   0.61 (0.40–0.95)  
 40–50 1.59 (1.17–2.16)   0.69 (0.42–1.12)  
Education-status
 No education 1.00 (base) 0.173 ----- -----
 Primary only 1.03 (0.82–1.28)   -----  
 Primary and secondary 1.05 (0.85–1.31)   -----  
 Higher 0.66 (0.43–1.01)   -----  
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1.00 (base) 0.096 1.00 (base) 0.015
 Poorer 1.01 (0.79–1.29)   0.92 (0.68–1.24)  
 Middle 0.85 (0.66–1.10)   0.75 (0.55–1.02)  
 Wealthier 0.91 (0.71–1.17)   0.75 (0.55–1.02)  
 Wealthiest 0.71 (0.53–0.93)   0.57 (0.40–0.80)  
Parity
 1 1.00 (base) < 0.001 1.00 (base) < 0.001
 2 1.84 (1.31–2.59)   2.23 (1.45–3.42)  
 3 2.69 (1.92–3.77)   3.78 (2.36–6.06)  
 4 2.85 (1.98–4.10)   5.44 (3.15–9.38)  
 5+ 2.62 (1.89–3.65)   6.57 (3.74–11.54)  
Gestational age at birth (months)
 7 26.2 (19.91–34.56) < 0.001 36.0 (24.56–52.83) < 0.001
 8 5.67 (4.48–7.16)   8.84 (5.92–13.22)  
 9 1.00 (base)   1.00 (base)  
 ≥ 10 1.42 (1.02–1.98)   1.51 (1.05–2.19)  
Perceived size at birth
 Very large 1.54 (1.10–2.14) < 0.001 1.83 (1.23–2.72) < 0.001
 Larger than average 2.00 (1.58–2.50)   2.34 (1.78–3.07)  
 Average 1.00 (Base)   1.00 (base)  
 Smaller than average 1.25 (0.91–1.71)   0.69 (0.47–1.01)  
 Very small 2.62 (1.84–3.72)   0.58 (0.35–0.96)  
Number of ANC visits
 0 1.00 (base) < 0.001 1.00 (base) 0.170
 1–3 0.91 (0.66–1.25)   0.96 (0.63–1.48)  
 4 or more 0.64 (0.47–0.87)   0.73 (0.47–1.14)  
 Not known 0.91 (0.61–1.36)   0.75 (0.42–1.35)  
Timing of 1st ANC visit
 First trimester 1.00 (base) 0.754 ----- -----
 Second trimester 0.88 (0.69–1.12)   -----  
 Third trimester 0.87 (0.58–1.26)   -----  
 Not known 0.94 (0.47–1.89)   -----  
Place of ANC
 Government facility only 1.00 (base) 0.284 ----- -----
 Private facility only 1.10 (0.90–1.35)   -----  
 Government and private 1.38 (0.91–2.08)   -----  
 Other only 0.91 (0.68–1.22)   -----  
Birth attendant
 Healthcare providerb 1.00 (Base) 0.139 ----- -----
 None 1.42 (0.89–2.26)   -----  
Place of birth
 A home 1.00 (base) < 0.001 1.00 (base) < 0.001
 Government hospital 2.25 (1.81–2.79)   3.96 (2.77–5.65)  
 Government health centre 0.57 (0.41–0.79)   0.73 (0.46–1.13)  
 Private sector 1.06 (0.82–1.36)   1.49 (1.01–2.20)  
 Other 0.94 (0.67–1.30)   0.80 (0.54–1.19)  
Mode of delivery
 Elective caesarean section 0.48 (0.31–0.73) < 0.001 0.19 (0.11–0.34) < 0.001
 Emergency caesarean section 1.31 (1.00–1.72)   0.55 (0.34–0.87)  
 Vaginal birth 1.00 (base)   1.00 (base)  
  1. Adjusted for site, age group, wealth quintile, parity, gestation, perceived size at birth, number of ANC visits, place of birth and mode of delivery
  2. aWoman’s age at survey
  3. bIn view of potential difficulty of women knowing the skill of a given provider, ‘skilled and unskilled’ healthcare provider groups have been merged