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Table 5 Associations between individual-, census tract-, and county-level indicators of socioeconomic status with all-cause mortality over 7-year follow-up, Mortality Disparities in American Communities study

From: Comparisons of individual- and area-level socioeconomic status as proxies for individual-level measures: evidence from the Mortality Disparities in American Communities study

  Individual-level characteristic Census tract-level characteristic County-level characteristic
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Household income       
 Above US median 0.318 (0.315–0.321) 0.782 (0.776–0.789) 0.803 (0.796–0.810)
Poverty level       
 ≤ 100% FPL 1.271 (1.255–1.287) 1.005 (1.004–1.005) 1.013 (1.012–1.013)
Education       
 Has high school degree 0.395 (0.391–0.399) 0.838 (0.831–0.844) 0.895 (0.887–0.902)
 Has college degree 0.480 (0.475–0.486) 0.994 (0.993–0.994) 0.989 (0.989–0.989)
Employment/occupation       
 Is unemployeda 0.356 (0.344–0.368) 1.092 (1.084–1.101) 1.112 (1.103–1.121)
 Employed in blue-collar industryb 0.284 (0.282–0.286) 1.006 (1.006–1.006) 1.015 (1.014–1.015)
Other characteristics       
 Owns home 0.799 (0.791–0.806) 0.999 (0.999–1.000) 1.002 (1.002–1.003)
 Foreign born 0.536 (0.527–0.544) 0.867 (0.859–0.875) 0.859 (0.852–0.867)
  1. For household income, education, and owns home, having a value of 1 was considered low risk for health outcomes, while having a value of 0 was considered high risk; in contrast, for poverty, employment/occupation, and foreign born, having a value of 1 was considered high risk, while having a value of 0 was considered low risk. Each cell is a different logistic regression model. Models included a control variable for county population. All p < .0001
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, FPL federal poverty level
  3. aUnemployment was measured among participants who reported being in the workforce (e.g., excluding retirees)
  4. bEmployment in a blue-collar industry was measured among participants who reported being employed (i.e., excluding unemployed participants)