Open Access

Erratum to: Estimation of country-specific and global prevalence of male circumcision

  • Brian J. Morris1,
  • Richard G. Wamai2Email author,
  • Esther B. Henebeng3,
  • Aaron A. R. Tobian4,
  • Jeffrey D. Klausner5,
  • Joya Banerjee6 and
  • Catherine A. Hankins7, 8
Population Health MetricsAdvancing innovation in health measurement201614:11

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0080-6

Received: 10 March 2016

Accepted: 17 March 2016

Published: 4 April 2016

The original article was published in Population Health Metrics 2016 14:4

Following publication of the original article in Population Health Metrics [1], the authors wish to alert the reader to the following errors in male circumcision (MC) prevalence for 6 of the 237 countries and territories in Table 1.
Table 1

Percentage of circumcised males in each of the 237 countries and territories in the world*

Country/Territory

MC %

Country/Territory

MC %

Country/Territory

MC %

Afghanistan

99.8

Ghana

91.6

Oman

87.7

Albania

47.7

Gibraltar

6

Pakistan

96.4

Algeria

97.9

Greece

4.74

Palau

95

American Samoa

95

Greenland

0.1

Panama

0.95

Andorra

1.1

Grenada

0.3

Papua New Guinea

10.1

Angola

57.5

Guam

95

Paraguay

0.11

Anguilla

0.3

Guatemala

0.11

Peru

3.7

Antigua & Barbuda

0.6

Guernsey

0.1

Philippines

91.7

Argentina

2.9

Guinea

84.2

Pitcairn Islands

0.1

Armenia

0.1

Guinea-Bissau

93.3

Poland

0.11

Aruba

0.46

Guyana

12

Portugal

0.61

Australia

58

Haiti

6.2

Puerto Rico

0.14

Austria

5.8

Holy See (Vatican)

0.1

Qatar

77.5

Azerbaijan

98.5

Honduras

0.1

Romania

0.34

Bahamas, The

0.2

Hong Kong

28

Russia

11.8

Bahrain

81.2

Hungary

0.78

Rwanda

13.3

Bangladesh

93.2

Iceland

0.1

Saint Barthelemy

0.1

Barbados

0.9

India

13.5

Saint Helena, Ascens

0.1

Belarus

0.32

Indonesia

92.5

Saint Kitts & Nevis

0.3

Belgium

22.6

Iran

99.7

Saint Lucia

0.1

Belize

0.1

Iraq

98.9

Saint Martin & Tristan

0.1

Benin

92.9

Ireland

0.93

Saint Pierre & Miquel

0.2

Bermuda

0.8

Isle of Man

0.2

Saint Vincent & Grena

1.7

Bhutan

1.0

Israel

91.7

Samoa

95

Bolivia

0.11

Italy

2.6

San Marino

0.1

Bosnia & Herzegovina

41.6

Jamaica

14

Sao Tome & Principe

0.1

Botswana

15.1

Japan

9

Saudi Arabia

97.1

Brazil

1.3

Jersey

0.1

Senegal

93.5

British Virgin Islands

1.2

Jordan

98.8

Serbia

3.71

Brunei

51.9

Kazakhstan

56.4

Seychelles

1.1

Bulgaria

13.4

Kenya

91.2

Sierra Leone

96.1

Burkin Faso

88.3

Kiribati

0.1

Singapore

14.9

Burma

3.5

Korea, North

0.1

Sint Maarten

0.06

Burundi

61.7

Korea, South

77.0

Slovakia

0.15

Cabo Verde

0.1

Kosovo Islands

91.7

Slovenia

8.5

Cambodia

3.5

Kuwait

86.4

Solomon Islands

95

Cameroon

94

Kyrgyzstan

91.9

Somalia

93.5

Canada

31.9

Laos

0.1

South Africa

44.7

Cayman Islands

0.2

Latvia

0.38

South Sudan

23.6

Central African Republic

63.0

Lebanon

59.7

Spain

6.6

Chad

73.5

Lesotho

52

Sri Lanka

8.5

Chile

0.21

Liberia

97.7

Sudan

39.4

China

14.0

Libya

96.6

Suriname

15.9

Christmas Island

0.1

Liechtenstein

4.8

Svalbard

0.1

Cocos (Keeling)

95

Lithuania

0.2

Swaziland

8.2

Columbia

4.2

Luxembourg

2.42

Sweden

5.1

Comoros

99.4

Macau

0.1

Switzerland

5.9

Congo, Dem Rep

97.2

Macedonia

33.9

Syria

92.8

Congo, Republic

70

Madagascar

94.7

Taiwan

8.3

Cook Islands

95

Malawi

21.6

Tajikistan

99

Costa Rica

0.15

Malaysia

61.4

Tanzania

72

Cote d’Ivoire

96.7

Maldives

98.4

Thailand

11.9

Croatia

1.34

Mali

86

Timor-Leste

6.4

Cuba

0.11

Malta

0.3

Togo

95.2

Curacao

0.07

Marshall Islands

0.1

Tokelau

95

Cyprus

22.7

Mauritania

99.2

Tonga

95

Czech Republic

0.14

Mauritius

16.6

Trinidad & Tobago

5.8

Denmark

5.3

Mexico

15.4

Tunisia

99.8

Djibouti

96.5

Micronesia, Fed States

0.1

Turkey

98.6

Dominica

0.2

Moldova

0.5

Turkmenistan

93.4

Dominican Repub

13.7

Monaco

0.5

Turks & Caicos Is

0.1

Ecuador

0.11

Mongolia

4.4

Tuvalu

95

Egypt

94.7

Montenegro

18.5

Uganda

26.7

El Salvador

0.11

Montserrat

0.1

Ukraine

2.3

Equatorial Guinea

87

Morocco

99.9

United Arab Emirates

76

Eritrea

97.2

Mozambique

47.4

United Kingdom

20.7

Estonia

0.25

Namibia

25.5

United States

80.5

Ethiopia

92.2

Nauru

95

Uruguay

0.62

Falkland Islands

0.1

Nepal

4.2

Uzbekistan

96.5

Faroe Islands

0.1

Netherlands

5.7

Vanuatu

95

Fiji

55

New Caledonia

50

Venezuela

0.33

Finland

0.82

New Zealand

33.0

Vietnam

0.2

France

14

Nicaragua

0.1

Virgin Islands

0.55

French Polynesia

78

Niger

95.5

Wallis & Futuna

0.1

Gabon

99.2

Nigeria

98.9

West Bank

99.9

Gambia, The

94.5

Niue

95

Western Sahara

99.6

Gaza Strip

99.9

Norfolk Island

0.1

Yemen

99.0

Georgia

10. 6

Northern Mariana Is

90

Zambia

21.6

Germany

6.7

Norway

3.0

Zimbabwe

9.2

*The reader is referred to Additional files 1 and 2 in the supplementary material in order to understand the use of our methodology for deriving the values shown in this Table

–United States: The value for MC prevalence in the United States (US) is shown as 70.1, which is from reference 27, but this value should have been 80.5, as reported in reference 26. The figure of 70.1 is for 222,546 privately insured US males aged 1–18 years, whereas the figure of 80.5 is for 6,294 US males aged 14–59 years drawn from National Health and Nutrition Surveys by researchers at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The 80.5 figure is more representative of the overall male population in the US. As stated in the Methods section, circumcision prevalence figures for mature males across this general age range were used for all countries and territories when available. Only for Canada (infants) and Taiwan (boys aged 7–13 years) were the surveys that were available not for mature males.

–Germany: MC prevalence in Table 1 is shown as 10.9 %, but should have been 6.7 %. The former came from a nationwide survey of 8,985 males aged 1–17 (reference 82), whereas the latter is from a survey of 2,490 mature males aged 30–61 (Reference 83).

–Thailand: 11.9 % rather than 23.4 %, which arose from a calculation error.

–Australia: 85 % for males aged 16–64 (reference 36) rather than 26.6 %, which was the weighted average of these older males together with figures of 11 % for males aged 0–6 months (reference 37) and 10.9 % for newborn males (reference 38).

–Zambia: 21.6 % from 2014 data (reference 160) rather than 12.8 % from 2007 data (reference 161).

–Pitcairn Island: 0.1 % rather than 0 % owing to our decision to make 0.1 % the minimum for any country because MC is used commonly to treat foreskin-related medical conditions.

Use of these corrected figures led to estimates of 1,425,692,596 for total number of circumcised males globally based on 2015 CIA data for total males and 907,738,816 based on United Nations and CIA data. MC prevalence was calculated as 39.0 % (95 % CI: 33.7, 44.3) and 37.1 % (95 % CI: 31.8, 42.4), using 2015 CIA data for sex ratio and total population in 237 countries and territories globally and on 2015 United Nations figures for males aged 15–64 years, respectively.

The use of the corrected figures does not alter our rounded estimate for global MC prevalence of 37–39 %.

The corrected Table 1 appears below. Additional files 1, 2 and 3 referred to below are available for this article on-line.

Notes

Declarations

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney
(2)
Department of African-American Studies, Northeastern University
(3)
College of Science, Northeastern University
(4)
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University
(5)
Division of Infectious Diseases and Program in Global Health, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)
(6)
Jhpiego, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University
(7)
Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Centre and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam
(8)
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Reference

  1. Morris BJ, Wamai RG, Henebeng EB, Tobian AAR, Klausner JD, Banerjee J, et al. Estimation of country-specific and global prevalence of male circumcision. Popul Health Metr. 2016;14:4. doi:10.1186/s12963-016-0073-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Morris et al. 2016

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