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  1. In many high-income countries, life expectancy (LE) has increased, with women outliving men. This gender gap in LE (GGLE) has been explained with biological factors, healthy behaviours, health status, and soci...

    Authors: Kasim Allel, Franceso Salustri, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli and Ali Kiadaliri

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:40

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Authors: Fatemeh Sadeghi, Bahman Cheraghian, Zahra Mohammadi, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Sahar Masoudi, Zahra Rahimi, Leila Danehchin, Yousef Paridar, Farhad Abolnezhadian, Mohammad Noori, Seyed Ali Mard, Ali Akbar Shayesteh and Hossein Poustchi

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:39

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Population Health Metrics 2021 19:26

  3. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) causes substantial disease burden and is projected to affect an increasing number of people in coming decades. This study provides projected estimates of life years free of type 2 diabete...

    Authors: Thaddäus Tönnies, Jens Baumert, Christin Heidemann, Elena von der Lippe, Ralph Brinks and Annika Hoyer

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Gender differences in the trend of educational inequality in diabetes have been widely observed in the Western populations, indicating the increasing importance of educational attainment as a social determinan...

    Authors: Gary Ka-Ki Chung, Francisco Tsz Tsun Lai, Eng-Kiong Yeoh and Roger Yat-Nork Chung

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:37

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. Low birthweight (LBW) (< 2500 g) is a significant determinant of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In low-income settings, the quality of birthweight data suffers from measurement and recording errors,...

    Authors: Estifanos Baye, Firehiwot Workneh Abate, Michelle Eglovitch, Fisseha Shiferie, Ingrid E. Olson, Tigest Shifraw, Workagegnehu Tarekegn Kidane, Kalkidan Yibeltal, Sitota Tsegaye, Mulatu Melese Derebe, Sheila Isanaka, Blair J. Wylie, Rose L. Molina, Grace J. Chan, Amare Worku, Luke C. Mullany…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:35

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. The lack of classification by educational attainment in death and population exposure data at older ages is an important constraint for studying changes and patterns of mortality disparities by education in De...

    Authors: László Németh, Domantas Jasilionis, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen and Dmitri A. Jdanov

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. The presence and quality of social ties can influence suicide risk. In adulthood, the most common provider of such ties is one’s partner. As such, the link between marital status and suicide is well-documented...

    Authors: Carine Øien-Ødegaard, Lars Johan Hauge and Anne Reneflot

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. This is the first study to examine the costs of conducting a mobile phone survey (MPS) through interactive voice response (IVR) to collect information on risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in thre...

    Authors: Andres I. Vecino-Ortiz, Madhuram Nagarajan, Kenneth Roger Katumba, Shamima Akhter, Raymond Tweheyo, Dustin G. Gibson, Joseph Ali, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Alain Labrique and George W. Pariyo

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:32

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) contribute significantly to the burden of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) inpatient care, but heterogeneous coding practices and availability of inpatie...

    Authors: Emily K. Johnson, Dillon Sylte, Sandra S. Chaves, You Li, Cedric Mahe, Harish Nair, John Paget, Tayma van Pomeren, Ting Shi, Cecile Viboud and Spencer L. James

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Since the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) has become more comprehensive, data for hundreds of causes of disease burden, measured using Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), have become increasingly avai...

    Authors: Henry Dyson, Raf Van Gestel and Eddy van Doorslaer

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. It remains unclear whether alcohol use disorders (AUDs) can be characterized by specific levels of average daily alcohol consumption. The aim of the current study was to model the distributions of average dail...

    Authors: Huan Jiang, Shannon Lange, Alexander Tran, Sameer Imtiaz and Jürgen Rehm

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. The number of deaths attributable to COVID-19 in Spain has been highly controversial since it is problematic to tell apart deaths having COVID as the main cause from those provoked by the aggravation by the vi...

    Authors: Pedro Saavedra, Angelo Santana, Luis Bello, José-Miguel Pacheco and Esther Sanjuán

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. In 2017, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) provided a new guideline for hypertension prevention and management. We aimed to update the prevalence, awareness, control, and ...

    Authors: Fatemeh Sadeghi, Bahman Cheraghian, Zahra Mohammadi, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Sahar Masoudi, Zahra Rahimi, Leila Danehchin, Yousef Paridar, Farhad Abolnezhadian, Mohammad Noori, Seyed Ali Mard, Ali Akbar Shayesteh and Hossein Poustchi

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Population Health Metrics 2021 19:39

  14. Most deaths in China occur at home, making it difficult to collect reliable cause of death (CoD) information. Verbal autopsy (VA) was applied using the SmartVA tool to a sample of home deaths in China to explo...

    Authors: Jinlei Qi, Tim Adair, Hafizur R. Chowdhury, Hang Li, Deirdre McLaughlin, Yunning Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Xinying Zeng, Jinling You, Sonja Firth, Renee Sorchik, Peng Yin, Lijun Wang, Maigeng Zhou and Alan D. Lopez

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Although understanding changes in the body weight distribution and trends in obesity inequality plays a key role in assessing the causes and persistence of obesity, limited research on this topic is available ...

    Authors: Peng Nie, Lanlin Ding, Alfonso Sousa-Poza, Alina Alfonso Leon, Hong Xue, Peng Jia, Liang Wang and Youfa Wang

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. The expanded definition of liver-related deaths includes a wide range of etiologies and sequelae. We compared the changes in liver-related mortality by etiology and sequelae for different age groups between 20...

    Authors: Ming-Jen Sheu, Fu-Wen Liang, Ching-Yih Lin and Tsung-Hsueh Lu

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Disability weights (DWs) are weight factors that reflect the severity of health states for estimates of disability-adjusted life years. A new set of global DWs was published for the Global Burden of Diseases a...

    Authors: Shuhei Nomura, Yoshiko Yamamoto, Daisuke Yoneoka, Juanita A. Haagsma, Joshua A. Salomon, Peter Ueda, Rintaro Mori, Damian Santomauro, Theo Vos and Kenji Shibuya

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Nicotine vaping products (NVPs) are increasingly popular worldwide. They may provide public health benefits if used as a substitute for smoking, but may create public health harms if used as a gateway to smoki...

    Authors: David T. Levy, Jamie Tam, Luz María Sanchez-Romero, Yameng Li, Zhe Yuan, Jihyoun Jeon and Rafael Meza

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Population-based cancer registries are required to calculate cancer incidence in a geographical area, and several methods have been developed to obtain estimations of cancer incidence in areas not covered by a...

    Authors: Daniel Redondo-Sánchez, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Alberto Ameijide, Francisco Javier Alonso, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Jose Juan Jiménez-Moleón and María-José Sánchez

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Low birthweight (< 2500 g) is an important marker of maternal health and is associated with neonatal mortality, long-term development and chronic diseases. Household surveys remain an important source of popul...

    Authors: Gashaw Andargie Biks, Hannah Blencowe, Victoria Ponce Hardy, Bisrat Misganaw Geremew, Dessie Abebaw Angaw, Alemakef Wagnew, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Tadesse Guadu, Justiniano S.D. Martins, Ane Baerent Fisker, Md. Ali Imam, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Simon Kasasa, Lydia Di Stefano, Joseph Akuze, Doris Kwesiga…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  21. Preterm birth (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. However, GA is rarely assessed in population-based surveys, the major data source in low/middle-income countrie...

    Authors: M. Moinuddin Haider, Kaiser Mahmud, Hannah Blencowe, Tahmeed Ahmed, Joseph Akuze, Simon Cousens, Nafisa Delwar, Ane B. Fisker, Victoria Ponce Hardy, S. M. Tafsir Hasan, Md. Ali Imam, Dan Kajungu, Md Alfazal Khan, Justiniano S. D. Martins, Quamrun Nahar, Obed Ernest A. Nettey…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  22. Risks of neonatal death, stillbirth and miscarriage are highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where data has most gaps and estimates rely on household surveys, dependent on women reporting these...

    Authors: Doris Kwesiga, Charlotte Tawiah, Md Ali Imam, Adane Kebede Tesega, Tryphena Nareeba, Yeetey A K Enuameh, Gashaw A. Biks, Grace Manu, Alexandra Beedle, Nafisa Delwar, Ane B. Fisker, Peter Waiswa, Joy E. Lawn and Hannah Blencowe

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):15

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  23. Birth registration is a child’s first right. Registration of live births, stillbirths and deaths is foundational for national planning. Completeness of birth registration for live births in low- and middle-inc...

    Authors: Simon Kasasa, Davis Natukwatsa, Edward Galiwango, Tryphena Nareeba, Collins Gyezaho, Ane Baerent Fisker, Mezgebu Yitayal Mengistu, Francis Dzabeng, M. Moinuddin Haider, Judith Yargawa, Joseph Akuze, Angela Baschieri, Claudia Cappa, Debra Jackson, Joy E. Lawn, Hannah Blencowe…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  24. Household surveys remain important sources of stillbirth data, but omission and misclassification are common. Classifying adverse pregnancy outcomes as stillbirths requires accurate reporting of vital status a...

    Authors: Hannah Blencowe, Matteo Bottecchia, Doris Kwesiga, Joseph Akuze, M. Moinuddin Haider, Edward Galiwango, Francis Dzabeng, Ane B. Fisker, Yeetey Akpe Kwesi Enuameh, Bisrat Misganaw Geremew, Tryphena Nareeba, Susannah Woodd, Alexandra Beedle, Kimberly Peven, Simon Cousens, Peter Waiswa…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  25. Termination of pregnancy (TOP) is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Population-based surveys are the major data source for TOP data in LMICs but are known ...

    Authors: Yeetey Akpe Kwesi Enuameh, Francis Dzabeng, Hannah Blencowe, Sanne M. Thysen, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Kwaku Poku Asante, Charlotte Tawiah, Vladimir Sergeevich Gordeev, Wisdom Adeapena, Doris Kwesiga, Simon Kasasa, Charles Zandoh, Md. Ali Imam, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Sam K. Newton, Seth Owusu-Agyei…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  26. Household surveys remain important sources of maternal and child health data, but until now, standard surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have not collected information on maternity care for w...

    Authors: Lydia Di Stefano, Matteo Bottecchia, Judith Yargawa, Joseph Akuze, M. Moinuddin Haider, Edward Galiwango, Francis Dzabeng, Ane B. Fisker, Bisrat Misganaw Geremew, Simon Cousens, Joy E. Lawn, Hannah Blencowe and Peter Waiswa

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  27. Paradata are (timestamped) records tracking the process of (electronic) data collection. We analysed paradata from a large household survey of questions capturing pregnancy outcomes to assess performance (timi...

    Authors: Vladimir Sergeevich Gordeev, Joseph Akuze, Angela Baschieri, Sanne M. Thysen, Francis Dzabeng, M. Moinuddin Haider, Melanie Smuk, Michael Wild, Michael M. Lokshin, Temesgen Azemeraw Yitayew, Solomon Mokonnen Abebe, Davis Natukwatsa, Collins Gyezaho, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Joy E. Lawn and Hannah Blencowe

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  28. Electronic data collection is increasingly used for household surveys, but factors influencing design and implementation have not been widely studied. The Every Newborn-INDEPTH (EN-INDEPTH) study was a multi-s...

    Authors: Sanne M. Thysen, Charlotte Tawiah, Hannah Blencowe, Grace Manu, Joseph Akuze, M. Moinuddin Haider, Nurul Alam, Temesgen Azemeraw Yitayew, Angela Baschieri, Gashaw A. Biks, Francis Dzabeng, Ane B. Fisker, Md. Ali Imam, Justiniano S. D. Martins, Davis Natukwatsa, Joy E. Lawn…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  29. Worldwide, an estimated 5.1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually, 98% in low- and middle-income countries. Limited coverage of civil and vital registration systems necessitates reliance on wo...

    Authors: Joseph Akuze, Simon Cousens, Joy E. Lawn, Peter Waiswa, Vladimir Sergeevich Gordeev, Fred Arnold, Trevor Croft, Angela Baschieri and Hannah Blencowe

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  30. Global mortality estimates remain heavily dependent on household surveys in low- and middle-income countries, where most under-five deaths occur. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of mortality data or det...

    Authors: Tryphena Nareeba, Francis Dzabeng, Nurul Alam, Gashaw A. Biks, Sanne M. Thysen, Joseph Akuze, Hannah Blencowe, Stephane Helleringer, Joy E. Lawn, Kaiser Mahmud, Temesgen Azemeraw Yitayew and Ane B. Fisker

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  31. An estimated 40% of pregnancies globally are unintended. Measurement of pregnancy intention in low- and middle-income countries relies heavily on surveys, notably Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), yet few ...

    Authors: Judith Yargawa, Kazuyo Machiyama, Victoria Ponce Hardy, Yeetey Enuameh, Edward Galiwango, Kassahun Gelaye, Kaiser Mahmud, Sanne M. Thysen, Damazo T. Kadengye, Vladimir Sergeevich Gordeev, Hannah Blencowe, Joy E. Lawn, Angela Baschieri and John Cleland

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19(Suppl 1):6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 19 Supplement 1

  32. Smartphones have rapidly become an important marker of wealth in low- and middle-income countries, but international household surveys do not regularly gather data on smartphone ownership and these data are ra...

    Authors: Mathieu J. P. Poirier, Till Bärnighausen, Guy Harling, Ali Sié and Karen A. Grépin

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. To study the trends of smoking-attributable mortality among the low and high educated in consecutive birth cohorts in 11 European countries.

    Authors: Di Long, Johan Mackenbach, Pekka Martikainen, Olle Lundberg, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen, Matthias Bopp, Giuseppe Costa, Katalin Kovács, Mall Leinsalu, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Gwenn Menvielle and Wilma Nusselder

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Although efforts to reduce high maternal mortality in countries such as Indonesia tend to focus on addressing health risks among pregnant women, family planning has been shown globally to reduce maternal morta...

    Authors: Budi Utomo, Purwa Kurnia Sucahya, Nohan Arum Romadlona, Annette Sachs Robertson, Riznawaty Imma Aryanty and Robert Joseph Magnani

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Area-level measures are often used to approximate socioeconomic status (SES) when individual-level data are not available. However, no national studies have examined the validity of these measures in approxima...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Moss, Norman J. Johnson, Mandi Yu, Sean F. Altekruse and Kathleen A. Cronin

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2021 19:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Linking facility and household surveys through geographic methods is a popular technique to draw conclusions about the relationship between health services and population health outcomes at local levels. These...

    Authors: Michael A. Peters, Diwakar Mohan, Patrick Naphini, Emily Carter and Melissa A. Marx

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Most western countries are facing relevant demographic changes, and the percentage of older people is destined to rise in the next decades. This fact is likely to affect the sustainability of healthcare system...

    Authors: Enrico di Bella, Luca Gandullia, Lucia Leporatti, Walter Locatelli, Marcello Montefiori, Luca Persico and Roberta Zanetti

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Monitoring abortion rates is highly relevant for demographic and public health considerations, yet its reliable estimation is fraught with uncertainty due to lack of complete national health facility service s...

    Authors: Suzanne O. Bell, Mridula Shankar, Elizabeth Omoluabi, Anoop Khanna, Hyacinthe Kouakou Andoh, Funmilola OlaOlorun, Danish Ahmad, Georges Guiella, Saifuddin Ahmed and Caroline Moreau

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Research concerning the causes and consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly in less developed areas of the world, has become prominent in the last two decades. Although a number of potenti...

    Authors: John Sandberg, Rosalind Fennell, Yacine Boujija, Laetitia Douillot, Valerie Delaunay, Simona Bignami, Wubin Xie, Cheikh Sokhna and Steven Rytina

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Nationally representative household surveys are the gold standard for tracking progress in coverage of life-saving maternal and child interventions, but often do not provide timely information on coverage at t...

    Authors: Elizabeth M. Simmons, Kavita Singh, Jamiru Mpiima, Manish Kumar and William Weiss

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. The number of older Australians using aged care services is increasing, yet there is an absence of reliable data on their health. Multimorbidity in this population has not been well described. A clear picture ...

    Authors: Kimberly E. Lind, Magdalena Z. Raban, Lindsey Brett, Mikaela L. Jorgensen, Andrew Georgiou and Johanna I. Westbrook

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. The present study sought to analyze smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality estimates produced by the 2017 Global Burden of Disease Study for Brazil, 26 states, and the Federal District.

    Authors: Deborah Carvalho Malta, Luisa Sorio Flor, Ísis Eloah Machado, Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes, Luisa Campos Caldeira Brant, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Renato Azeredo Teixeira, Eduardo Marques Macário, Marissa B. Reitsma, Scott Glenn, Mohsen Naghavi and Emmanuela Gakidou

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18(Suppl 1):24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  43. Brazil leads the world in number of firearm deaths and ranks sixth by country in rate of firearm deaths per 100,000 people. This study aims to analyze trends in and burden of mortality by firearms, according t...

    Authors: Deborah Carvalho Malta, Adauto Martins Soares Filho, Isabella Vitral Pinto, Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo, Cheila Marina Lima, Ísis Eloah Machado, Renato Azeredo Teixeira, Otaliba Libânio Morais Neto, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Edgar Merchan-Hamann, Maria de Fatima Marinho de Souza, Cíntia Honório Vasconcelos, Carlos Cezar Flores Vidotti, Ewerton Cousin, Scott Glenn, Catherine Bisignano…

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18(Suppl 1):19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  44. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an important cause of fatal and non-fatal burden in Brazil. In this study, we present estimates for TB burden in Brazil from 1990 to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of ...

    Authors: Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Juliana Maria Trindade Bezerra, David Soeiro Barbosa, Mariângela Carneiro, Kleydson Bonfim Andrade, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Mohsen Naghavi and Guilherme Loureiro Werneck

    Citation: Population Health Metrics 2020 18(Suppl 1):10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

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